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22.01.2018 – UTF-8 -Abbreviation for 8-bit Unicode transformation format. Eastern Arabic numerals Set of symbols used to represent numbers in combination with the Arabic alphabet in various countries, including Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan, and parts of India.
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1. 2Translation memory eXchange also TMX Standard for converting translation memories from one format to another. Machine Translation also known as automated translation Translation carried out exclusively by a machine.
2. 6 Automatic substitution Exact matches come up in translating new versions of a document.http://softik.org/4videosoft-blu-ray-converter-3-3-06/ http://softik.org/4videosoft-blu-ray-converter-3-3-06-crack-timetravelh33t/The Entry Number field is automatically assigned to each entry at entry level; for more information about history fields, see below. Plain English Method of writing English that employs a clear and simple style, usually for the purpose of improving readability.
3. 4 Computer architecture provides an introduction to system design basics for most computer science students. MOBAs available for free. http://softik.org/software-update-failed-please-try-again-htc-hd2/Language tags and codes Language codes are closely related to the localizing process, as they indicate the locales involved in the translation and adaptation of the product.
4. 3 The purpose of a translation kit is to provide LSPs with expectations:Dictionary net 3 3 4114 translate texts and words between various languagesThese are used to estimate the amount of work involved in a translation job.
5. 10 False friends False friends are pairs of words or phrases in two languages or dialects or letters in two alphabets that look or sound similar, but differ in meaning.
6. 5 The text units contained in the leveraged memory database can also be used to provide fuzzy matches of similar previously translated text from within the same document. UTF-8 -Abbreviation for 8-bit Unicode transformation format.
7. 5 Arabic numerals Set of ten numerals 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 that comprise the most commonly used symbolic representation of numbers throughout the world.
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ImTranslator Add-on for Firefox. ImTranslator Extension for Chrome. ImTranslator Extension for Opera. ImTranslator Extension for Yandex. Translation Comparison Add-on for Firefox.
Translation Comparison Extension for Chrome. Google Translate Extension for Opera. Google Translate Extension for Yandex. The extension includes 4 translation applications and supports language detection, text-to-speech, dictionary, translation history and more.
ImTranslator for Firefox is one of the most popular add-ons for Firefox. The extension translates words, phrases, texts and webpages between more than 90 languages using 3 translation providers: Google, Microsoft Bing and Translator.
ImTranslator has been downloaded over 23 million times. ImTranslator for Opera performs translations of words, phrases, texts and texts between 91 languages using 3 translation providers: The extension supports language detection, text-to-speech, dictionary, translation history and more.
Google Translate for Opera translates text, words, phrases and webpages between over 90 languages using Google Translate service. This extension supports language detection, back translation, text-to-speech, dictionary, translation history and settings customization.
ImTranslator for Yandex performs quick translation of a selected text, words, phrases and webpages between 91 languages and 3 translation providers Google, Microsoft, Translator.
ImTranslator is available on Yandex. Browser via Opera browser extensions. Google Translate for Yandex translates selected texts, words, phrases and webpages between more than 90 languages using Google Net service.
This extension is available on Yandex. Browser via Opera browser extensions, and is fully compatible with Yandex browser. Translation Comparison for Chrome translates words, phrases and texts, and compares the translation results between various online translation providers: Translation Comparison for Firefox translates words, phrases and texts, and compares the translation results between various online translation providers: Translation Comparison for Opera translates words, phrases and texts, and compares the translation results between various online translation providers: Translation Comparison for Yandex translates words, phrases and texts, and compares the translation results between various online translation providers: Sincethe company has focused on designing a complete, yet affordable business solution for multilingual communications by developing and integrating innovative language technologies in the Internet and Intranet environments.
ImTranslator for Chrome translates words, phrases, texts and webpages between more than 90 languages using Google, Microsoft Bing and Translator. ImTranslator Firefox ImTranslator for Opera performs translations of words, phrases, texts and webpages between 91 languages using 3 translation providers: ImTranslator Opera Google Translate for Opera translates text, words, phrases and webpages between over 90 languages using Google Translate service.
Google Translate Opera ImTranslator for Yandex performs quick translation of a selected text, words, phrases and webpages between 91 languages and 3 translation providers Google, Microsoft, Translator.
ImTranslator Yandex Google Translate for Yandex translates selected texts, words, phrases and webpages between more than 90 languages using Google Translate service. Google Translate Yandex Translation Comparison for Chrome translates words, phrases and texts, and compares the translation results between various online translate providers: Translation Comparison Chrome Translation Comparison for Firefox translates words, phrases and texts, and compares the translation results between various online translation providers: Translation Comparison Firefox Between Comparison for Opera translates words, phrases languages texts, and compares the translation results between various words translation providers: Translation Comparison Opera Translation Comparison for Yandex translates words, phrases and texts, and compares the translation results between various online translation providers: Founded inSmart Link Corporation is a developer and publisher of multilingual software products and web-based solutions.
Online Translator performs various instant translation of words, phrases and texts between more than 90 languages. The translation is powered by Google Translate, Microsoft Bing Translator and other machine translation engines.
Spellink is a spell-checking server that specializes in spell-checking multilingual text. Spellink Server provides 4114 full-featured, high-quality spell-checking tool for 8 European languages.
Dictionary Keyboard is a web-based application for and input in foreign languages that can provide additional multilingual support, as well increase login security.
Virtual Keyboard has customizable layout and size options and multiple text input methods for 58 alphabet systems. Dictionary Server delivers a web-based version of bilingual dictionaries for 8 European languages and their combinations.
Dictionary Server provides translation of words, common phrases and idiomatic expressions for 20 language pairs. Decoder is a server-based application that solves the problem of incorrect displays of Russian characters in emails by identifying 5 of the most common encodings and converting these encodings into Russian characters.
The Solutions Guide presents a spectrum of smart solutions and tips for the products listed on this page. A simple and logical navigation system will guide you through the products’ functionalities and potential implementation.
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Workflow management Computer or web-based applications used to direct translation and localization work processes. About Webopedia Sitemap Account Management. Turkish Dictionary for Turkish Entry class field – specifies the entry class to which the entry belongs. The essence of DITA is the concept of topic-based publication construction and development, which allows the modular reuse of specific sections. Character set Collection of symbols or characters that correspond to textual information in a language or language group.
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Functional testing Reviewing software applications and programs to ensure that the localization process does not change the software or impair its functions or on-screen content display.
Fuzzy match Indication that words or sentences are partially – but not exactly – matched to previous translations. When the match during Translation Memory analysis has not been exact, it is a fuzzy match.
Those figures are not comparable across systems unless the method of scoring is specified. Fuzzy logic Process that creates near matches in text to translation memory terms when exact matches cannot be found.
GILT Acronym for globalization, internationalization, localization, and translation. Gist translation Use of human or machine translation to create a rough translation of the source text that allows the reader to understand the essence of the text.
Globalization G11N Globalisation or globalization describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade.
Globalization is referred to as a cycle, rather than a single process. G11N – Abbreviation for globalization, with the number 11 representing the number of characters between the G and N.
Glocal Combination of the words ‘global’ and ‘local,’ used to describe products or services intended for international markets and have been customized for different languages, countries, and cultures Glossary A glossary, also known as an idioticon, vocabulary, or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.
Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book which are either newly introduced, uncommon or specialized. A bilingual glossary is a list of terms in one language which are defined in a second language or glossed by synonyms or at least near-synonyms in another language.
In a general sense, a glossary contains explanations of concepts relevant to a certain field of study or action. In this sense, the term is related to the notion of ontology.
Automatic methods have been also provided that transform a glossary into an ontology or a computational lexicon. Global information management Metrics eXchange GMX is a family of standards of globalization- and localization-related metrics.
The three components of GMX are: Volume V Global Information Management Metrics Volume addresses the issue of quantifying the workload for a given localization or translation task, something often handled using word counts.
Word counts, however, do not convey the true range of possible statistics that can be used to assess the cost of localizing a document. GMX-V provides a standard and more precise definition of the statistics necessary for to assess the quantity of text and costs associated with language-related globalization tasks.
GMX-C will provide a standard metric for the assessment of textual complexity with regard to globalization tasks. This format has not yet been defined. GMX-Q will provide a standard format for the specification of quality requirements for globalization tasks, thus allowing quality expectations to be specified in contracts and other agreements and verified.
Homonym A homonym is one of a group of words that share the same spelling and the same pronunciation but have different meanings. Context is often defined by the surrounding sentences and attributes such as document file name, date, and permissions.
In-country review Evaluation of a translated text by an individual who resides within the country where the target text will be used. Internationalization I18N Internationalization is the planning and preparation stages for a product that is built by design to support global markets.
This process removes all cultural assumptions and any country- or language-specific content is stored so that it can be easily adapted. If this content is not separated during this phase, it must be fixed during localization, adding time and expense to the project.
In extreme cases, products that were not internationalized may not be localizable. I18M – 18 stands for the number of letters between the first i and last n in internationalization, a usage coined at DEC in the s or 80s.
Interpretation Process of rendering oral spoken or signed communication from one language to another, or the output that results from this process. Language System of signed, spoken, or written communication.
Language tags and codes Language codes are closely related to the localizing process, as they indicate the locales involved in the translation and adaptation of the product.
There are multiple language tag systems available for language codification. Language kit Add-on feature that permits a keyboard to produce character sets for a given language. Language Services Provider LSP An organization or business that supplies language services, such as translation, localization, or interpretation.
Commonly abbreviated LSP Leverage Practice of reusing previously translated terms and phrases in new translations Rank which evaluates how much of the previously translated text can be reused Linguistic parsing The base form reduction is used to prepare lists of words and a text for automatic retrieval of terms from a term bank.
On the other hand, syntactic parsing may be used to extract multi-word terms or phraseology from a source text. So parsing is used to normalise word order variation of phraseology, this is which words can form a phrase.
Literal translation Translation that closely follows the phrasing, order and sentence construction of the source text. Localization L10N Process of adapting or modifying a product, service, or website for a given language, culture or region.
Language localization from the English term locale, a place where something happens or is set is the second phase of a larger process of product translation and cultural adaptation for specific countries, regions, or groups to account for differences in distinct markets, a process known as internationalization and localization.
Language localization is not merely a translation activity, because it involves a comprehensive study of the target culture in order to correctly adapt the product to local needs.
Localization is sometimes referred to by the numeronym L10N as in: L, followed by ten more letters, and then N. Localization refers to the actual adaptation of the product for a specific market.
The localization phase involves, among other things, the four issues LISA describes as linguistic, physical, business and cultural, and technical issues The localization process is most generally related to the cultural adaptation and translation of software, video games, and websites, and less frequently to any written translation which may also involve cultural adaptation processes.
Localization can be done for regions or countries where people speak different languages, or where the same language is spoken: Localization engineering Software engineering carried out to support localization.
Activities include internationalization, bug fixing, functionality testing, dialog box resizing, help compilation, and other software-related activities.
Most LSPs charge for these services by the Localization tool Application that assists with the translation and adaptation required for localization. Machine Translation also known as automated translation Translation carried out exclusively by a machine.
Machine translation plus translation memory A workflow and technology process in which terms not found in translation memory are automatically sent to the machine translation software for translation.
Markup language Artificial language that uses annotations to indicate how text should be formatted. Match Indication that words or sentences are matched – either partially or fully – to previous translations.
Meaning-for-meaning translation Translation for which the words used in both languages may not be exact equivalents, but the meaning is the same. Metadata Information that describes data.
Morpheme Smallest unit of meaning in a language. Mother tongue Native and first learned language of an individual. MT MT – Abbreviation for machine translation. Multi-byte character set Character set in which the number of bytes per character varies.
Multi-byte language Language that requires the use of a multi-byte character set. Multiculturalization Process by which the linguistic and cultural diversity among a group of people increases.
Multi-language vendor MLV Language service provider that offers services in multiple language pairs. Multilingual workflow Automation of business processes related to the development of multilingual products by managing multilingual content, usually through a translation management system, machine translation, and translation memory.
Multinationalization Process of expanding an organization’s presence into multiple nations. Native language First language that a human learns naturally, usually since childhood. Networking TM Server When networking during the translation it is possible to translate a text efficiently together with a group of translators.
This way, the translations entered by one translator are available to the others. Moreover, if translation memories are shared before the final translation, there is a chance that mistakes made by one translator will be corrected by other team members.
Neutral Spanish also Universal Spanish Spanish that is mutually intelligible by speakers from various parts of the Spanish-speaking world and is not immediately identifiable with any single regional variety of the language.
No standards exist for defining neutral Spanish. Next-wave language One of the languages of growing importance on the web. OLIF Abbreviation for open lexicon interchange format.
Ontology Description of the relationships between concepts, objects, and other entities within a given field. Plain English Method of writing English that employs a clear and simple style, usually for the purpose of improving readability.
Among its features are using only active verbs no passive voices and making sure that each word has only one meaning. PM PM – Abbreviation for project manager.
Individual who carries out management and coordination tasks for a given translation project. PPW Abbreviation for price per word. Post-editing Process by which one or more humans review, edit, and improve the quality of machine translation output.
Project manager Individual who carries out management and coordination tasks for a given translation project. Pre-editing Process by which a text is edited prior to translation in order to clarify ambiguous terms and increase translatability.
Pre-translation Phase of translation process in which documents are prepared for conversion into another language. Usually includes an automated analysis against translation memories so that previously translated text is inserted in a file, therefore avoiding rework and associated costs.
Project setup Translation preprocessing steps include tasks such as glossary and style guide preparation, project planning, file preparation, content familiarization, and training. Proofreading Practice of checking a translated text to identify and correct spelling, grammar, syntax, and coherency and integrity errors, usually carried out by a second linguist or translator.
Proofreading can be done by editors with no second language. Pseudo localization is the process of faking translation of software or web applications before starting to localize the product for real.
It is used to verify that the user interface is capable of containing the translated strings length and to discover possible internationalization issues. Pseudo-translation is a procedure which simulates how a translated document will look after translation and how much extra DTP or other work will be required before actual translation is done.
This can help in setting the appropriate timelines of projects. QA QA – Abbreviation for quality assurance. Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which specific processes are followed with the purpose of minimizing errors.
QC QC – Abbreviation for quality control. QI QI – Abbreviation for quality improvement. Quality improvement Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the overall goal is to enhance performance.
Quality assurance Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which specific processes are followed with the purpose of minimizing errors. Quality control Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the target text is reviewed with the purpose of catching errors.
Quality improvement Quality improvement Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the overall goal is to enhance performance. RBMT Abbreviation for rules-based machine translation.
Register Measure of formality of language dependent upon the tone, terminology, and grammar implemented. Repetition Sentence or phrase that is repeated in the source text, often referred to a Translation Memory analysis.
Rich Media Content Synonymous for interactive multimedia. A broad range of interactive digital media that exhibit dynamic motion, taking advantage of enhanced sensory features such as video, audio and animation.
ROI Return on investment, a performance measure that is used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment. Roman numerals System of numerals that evolved from the system used in classical Rome, often used for purposes such as numbering pages in introductions or prefaces.
SAE J A metric for the evaluation of translation quality, originally developed for the automotive sector. The metric comprises eror categorization and severity. Segment Sentence or phrase that is separated from the rest of a text based on language construction rules such as punctuation.
Segmentation Its purpose is to choose the most useful translation units. Segmentation is like a type of parsing. It is done monolingually using superficial parsing and alignment is based on segmentation.
If the translators correct the segmentations manually, later versions of the document will not find matches against the TM based on the corrected segmentation because the program will repeat its own errors.
Translators usually proceed sentence by sentence, although the translation of one sentence may depend on the translation of the surrounding ones. SimShip – Simultaneous shipment Abbreviation for simultaneous shipment.
Single-byte character set Character set in which a single 8-bit byte represents a character. Single sourcing single source publishing Single sourcing or single source publishing – Process of producing a document in one format and automatically translating or publishing it into multiple formats.
Software development kit Documentation and source code that facilitate the process of developing programs that interface with a given product. Software engineering Process of translating and adapting computer software from one language and culture into another.
Also referred to as localization engineering. Source code Code that is compiled to develop a program. Source count Number of words in a text to be translated. Source file File that contains the source document in its original form, as opposed to a generated file, and is required for localization processes.
Source language Original language of the text that to be translated. Source text Text to be translated. Source text analysis Analysis of the source text prior to translation that provides a better idea of the difficulty of the translation.
The ability to specify the segmentation rules that were used in the previous translation may increase the leveraging that can be achieved. Segmentation Rules eXchange SRX is the vendor-neutral standard for describing how translation and other language-processing tools segment text for processing.
It allows Translation Memory TM and other linguistic tools to describe the language-specific processes by which text is broken into segments usually sentences or paragraphs for further processing.
It was developed when it was realized that TMX leverage was sometimes lower than expected because different tools segmented text in different ways, preventing a direct correlation between results between the tools.
Standard line Measure of the usual number of keystrokes per line in a certain text, which varies per country, and consists on average of 50 to 60 characters; commonly used for translation projects that are priced on a per line basis.
Statistical machine translation Second-generation solutions that take a probability-based approach to translation through computational analysis of data, treating data as character strings, determining patterns, and leveraging regularities.
Style guide Document that describes the correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, style and numeric formats to ensure consistency and quality in a translated text. Style sheet Document or template that describes the structure and format of a document, with instructions regarding fonts, page size, spacing, margins, paragraph styles and tag mark-ups to ensure consistency and quality in a translated text.
Subtitles also captioning Subtitles are textual versions of the dialog in films and television programs, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen. They can either a written form of the original language or a translation.
Synonym Synonyms are different words with almost identical or similar meanings, e. Syntax Study of structure and elements that form grammatical sentences. Tagging Marking content in a document with information about its content.
Target audience Group of people who receive the information rendered by the interpreter in the target language. Target language Language into which the text is translated. XML standard for exchanging terminological data.
Technical translation Translation of technical texts, such as user or maintenance manuals, catalogues and data sheets. Term Word, phrase, symbol or formula that describes or designates a particular concept.
Term extraction also term harvesting Selecting terms in a text and placing them in a terminology database for analysis at a later time. Terminology Collection of terms Terminology analysis Process carried out prior to translation in order to analyze the vocabulary within a text and its meaning within the given context, often for the purpose of creating specialized dictionaries within specific fields.
Terminology database Electronic repository of terms and associated data. Term extraction It can have as input a previous dictionary. Moreover, when extracting unknown terms, it can use parsing based on text statistics.
These are used to estimate the amount of work involved in a translation job. This is very useful for planning and scheduling the work. Translation statistics usually count the words and estimate the amount of repetition in the text.
Termbase A termbase is a database containing terminology and related information. Most termbases are multilingual and contain terminology data in a range of different languages. Termbase Definition and the Structure of Entries All termbase entries are structured in the following way: Entry level – contains system fields, and any descriptive fields that apply to the entry as a whole.
Index level – contains index fields with terms as content, and any descriptive fields that apply to all terms in a given language. Term level – contains any descriptive fields that apply to a given term.
The termbase definition for a given termbase specifies the number and type of fields that a termbase entry may contain and the entry structure that entries must conform to. The entry structure specifies: The number and type of fields that may exist at each level in the entry.
The hierarchical structure of fields within each level, that is, whether fields are nested or not. Whether fields are mandatory or multiple at a given level of the entry.
MultiTerm supports unlimited nesting of descriptive fields. Termbase fields The different types of field are as follows: Index fields – contain the terms for each entry. Each index corresponds to one of the termbase languages.
Descriptive fields – contain descriptive information about the entry or language as a whole, or about the individual terms. Each descriptive field has a defined data type. Types of data include text, picklist, number, date, Boolean and multimedia file.
Entry class field – specifies the entry class to which the entry belongs. System fields – created and maintained by the system, these fields are used to store tracking information for the entry as a whole or for individual fields.
Preserve the original page formatting. Display translation in brackets or without. Align translation for better visibility by using the line break option. Control of the text selection by observing the word boundaries.
Select color of the translated text. Clear inserted translation and restore original page formatting. Auto language detection of the source text. Words translation using the built-in dictionary.
Inline Translator Options Pop-up Bubble Translator The Pop-up translator translates words, phrases and text on any website and displays the translation in a pop-up bubble without leaving the page.
To translate, select a text on a webpage with the mouse and: ImTranslator Bubble can automatically detect the language of the selected text, so all you have to do is to select the target language to translate.
Translates words, phrases and text between 91 languages Offers the choice of three translation providers Performs an automatic language detection of the source text Reverses the translation back to the original language using back translation Reads the original text and its translation Provides a wide range of language tools: To translate a webpage, choose Webpage Translation from: