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17.02.2018 – Big data analytics consists of 6Cs in the integrated Industry 4. Vandalism can also include advertising and other types of spam. Retrieved 14 October
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1. 5Hyde Park Group is a strategic culinary company, connecting consumer insight to new food and beverage development.
2. 6 Refer to GSM Road to city’s Wikipedia page goes through a DuPont Circle bedroom”.http://softik.org/microsoft-windows-xp-professional-sp3-x86-integrated-may-2013/Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes:
3. 5 Retrieved February 22, Reagle, Joseph Michael Jr. http://softik.org/adobe-photoshop-elements-v9-0-multilingual-esd-keygen49/ http://softik.org/adobe-photoshop-elements-v9-0-multilingual-esd-keygen-by-noir82/The Wikipedia Version 1.
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5. 3 Retrieved from ” https:
6. 4 Acid provides just about every tool an artist could want, from full multitrack editing to comprehensive MIDI support.
7. 3 The SpringSource assets became part of Pivotal Software. The USIM brought, among other things, security improvements like the mutual authentication and longer encryption keys and an improved address book.
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Clicking on the Download Now Visit Site button above will open a connection to a third-party site. Sony ACID Pro 7 is fully-featured music production software that is a great option for those who know their way around mixing console, but it can definitely be overwhelming for newcomers.
And if the price tag attached to Acid Pro 7 isn’t enough to scare off casual musicians, its technical interface and breadth of tools will be. The good news is that the latest version of Acid Pro offers interactive tutorials, which is helpful for users who aren’t familiar with the software.
Given the vast array of features, this addition is more than welcome. Acid provides just about every tool an artist could want, from full multitrack editing to comprehensive MIDI support.
In addition, more than 1, loops are included so you don’t have to record your own before beginning to mix it up. Acid Pro has hardware chops, too: All in all, Acid Pro’s interface is tidy and utilitarian.
It’s hard to understate the usefulness of the clean interface, given the overwhelming number of options available, though it’s nice that the hot keys for accessing the major option windows have been coded as ALT plus an ascending number, making them easy to remember.
Beginners and even hardware should give this a pass because of the complexity. Knowing the real-world analogues of the features is a big help. You can’t opt out of installing the Microsoft MySQL database manager, and registering for the trial version is also required.
Free upgrades are not included, but assuming you’ve got the knowledge, Acid Pro will make your music-editing experience a smooth, pain-free trip. Our new mixing console has the appearance of a traditional mixer – customize it to get the view you need.
Expanded routing options now allow for a more flexible studio recording environment. Record hardware instruments with plug-in effects, mix external sources into your projects, use external effects processors on tracks and busses, create complex submixes with bus-to-bus routing, and monitor it all in real time.
Set up and mix surround projects, and use the surround panner for precise control over channel positions. ACID Pro 7 software supports Mackie Control Universal and Frontier Design TranzPort, allows custom mapping of up to five user-defined control surfaces, and helps you stay organized by indicating all channels dedicated to external control.
Use Tempo Curves to create smooth tempo variations in your projects. Draw envelopes using a mouse or external control surface and then tidy them up with automatic post-record keyframe thinning.
So it’s almost a really good program. It’s a potentially great program, but it’s not yet great. Sometimes it’s so frustrating to use that you might as well be using some pre-alpha leak or something is there even one?
If you’re an experienced Vegas Pro user, then learning to make music with this software is a snap of the fingers. However, the program is so unstable that I just decided to continue using what I had used before: Was this review helpful?
Ease of use Full teature functionality recognizes most soft synths. Ive been using Acid Pro for over 10 years, starting with 3 and through 7. While Ive always loved the full-featured approach I even did my final mastering right in acid, equalizing every single track and using the master bus effectively and have had some fantastic results.
However, Acid has always been a bear on my system or it deutsch cant keep up with how hard I push it. Crash is its middle name and so I finally decided it was time to move on.
But all in all, over the years it was good to me. Terrible user interface with pale pastel colors. Very difficult to setup and navigate. Updated on Apr 5, I had to buy a new PC for totally unrelated reasons, re-installed the demo and have since been unable to get my midi keyboard to make a sound.
This is certainly not plug-and-play. I still cannot stand looking at that ugly GUI with pale pastel’s and fonts. I have been using other similar software that is much more intuitive and pretty for as good or better a price.
If I ever get this working I will write a proper review. First of all, this is a great DAW in theory. Good midi editing, nice, clean accessible and learnable interface. Looping and beatmapping features are nice.
This program has put me through hell too many times. I want to move to Ableton! I have lost several big projects to this program. I’ve had just some strange unexplainable things happen. Here are a few examples: Usually requires rebuilding of the project file.
This signals, to me, that the programming is so bad it can’t deal with non fatal errors -Acid, after it crashes, locks up my midi keyboard until system restart. If Acid crashes, it will usually report the following until restart: My computer has a quadcore 2.
I never feel safe using it. If you are just starting out and have the luxury of choosing some other DAW I suggest you do. I messed with Fruity Loops and found it to be pretty irritating.
I started using Acid Pro4. I’ve also used it to create hundreds of beats while on the road and without my mpc You can visit myspace. There are no pros. The interfaces are awesome and creating music is easy once you get the hang of it.
It’s not for the creative musician looking to compose music fast and easy. Your talent would be hindered by this product. The price is rediculous and definitely 2011 worth it.
I tried Sony Acid 7 and deleted it the 3rd day. Login or create an account to post a review. The posting of advertisements, profanity, or personal attacks is prohibited.
Once reported, our staff will be notified and the comment will be reviewed. Overview Review User Reviews Specs. Visit Site External Download Site. ACID Pro 7 software addresses even the most complex audio production tasks with ease.
With ACID Pro 7, you get the advantages of full-on DAW functionality paired with the built-in time stretching and pitch shifting features that revolutionized music and shook the industry. Reviews Current version All versions.
Sort Date Most helpful Positive rating Negative rating. Results 1—10 of 44 1 2 Pros -Easy to use interface, coloring is easy on the eyes -Easy to learn especially for Sony Vegas Pro users -Can be used with a lowly PC without a lagging problem Cons -Interface style makes it look very outdated, especially when using top vst’s like Massive -Although easy to use, interface can be confusingly mixed around everywhere -Crash, crash, crash, crash, crash -The percussion could sound better Summary So it’s almost a really good program.
Reply to this review Was this review helpful? Pros Ease of use Full teature functionality recognizes most soft synths Cons teriibly unstable Summary Ive been using Acid Pro for over 10 years, starting with 3 and through 7.
Pros No real pros that I can tell so far. Cons Terrible user interface with pale pastel colors. Summary Updated on Apr 5, I 2011 to buy a new PC for totally unrelated reasons, re-installed the demo and have since been unable to get my midi keyboard to make a sound.
Pros It’s good and the first time from Sony Cons It’s not free software. I must buy when I don’t have dollars Reply to this review Was this review helpful? Pros First of all, this is a great DAW in theory.
Summary I have lost several big projects to this program. Pros im sure its a good program but Cons ok, why when i try and download this, it says invalid file name??????? Pros There are no pros.
Cons It’s not for the creative musician looking to compose music fast and easy. Summary Sony took a little too much acid on this one. Pros how u get to make music Deutsch nothin woo Summary nothin Reply to this review Was this review helpful?
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Dr hardware 2011 v 11 0 0d deutsch sensor dyna super
Its PacketSentry product was planned to be incorporated into VMware vCloud Networking and Security but then it was discntinued by the end of Archived from the original PDF on September 25, Design Principles for Industrie 4. Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. The Dilbert comic strip from May 8,features a character supporting an improbable claim by saying “Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia currently has over 2, WikiProjects and activity varies. Archived from the original on November 18,
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VMware ESXi ,  an enterprise software product, can deliver greater performance than the freeware VMware Server, due to lower system computational overhead.
VMware ESXi, as a “bare-metal” product, runs directly on the server hardware, allowing virtual servers to also use hardware more or less directly. The VMware Workspace Portal was a self-service app store for workspace management.
Workspace ONE allows mobile users to access to apps and data. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Campus headquarters, Palo Alto, California. The New York Times. Accelerate Data Center Virtualization”.
Virtzilla beats the street, fires , crimps vCloud Air, doubles down on new products”. VMware gobbles Virsto for software-ruled arrays”. Is your next desktop going to live in the cloud?
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 March Retrieved 11 March Retrieved 5 April Retrieved April 27, Retrieved May 3, Virtualizing entire data centers, including admins for systems and networks”.
Palo Alto, California , United States. VMware acquired the Switzerland -based company for an undisclosed sum. VMware acquired the Israel -based start-up for an undisclosed sum. Performed enterprise and web application development and management.
The acquisition allowed use of the term platform as a service PaaS. The acquisition expanded VMware’s education services to include SpringSource University and its authorized training partners such as Spring People in India.
The SpringSource assets became part of Pivotal Software. Designed for open-source collaboration, it was bought from Yahoo and later sold in July to Telligent Systems. A startup which developed a SaaS application for building business presentations that are stored online.
Through a Web-based interface, users can handle all parts of the process, from designing slides and compiling content, to reviewing documents and publishing and delivering them.
User Activity Monitoring startup. Its PacketSentry product was planned to be incorporated into VMware vCloud Networking and Security but then it was discntinued by the end of AirWatch and Wandering WiFi.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to VMware. Lih states his concern with the question indicating that: There are currently language editions of Wikipedia also called language versions , or simply Wikipedias.
Distribution of the 47,, articles in different language editions as of 26 March . Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries as is the case for the English edition.
These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences e. Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as “neutral point of view”, they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.
Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as “an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language”. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation’s wiki devoted to maintaining all of its projects Wikipedia and others.
As for the rest, it is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might only be available in English, even when they meet notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.
Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because fully automated translation of articles is disallowed. A study published by PLoS ONE in also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world.
On March 1, , The Economist in an article titled “The Future of Wikipedia” cited a trend analysis concerning data published by Wikimedia stating that: The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five of more edits per month was relatively constant since for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42, editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2, editors up or down.
The attrition rates for editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, were cited as peaking in at approximately 50, editors, which has dropped to 30, editors as of the start of At the quoted trend rate, the number of active editors in English Wikipedia has lost approximately 20, editors to attrition since , and the documented trend rate indicates the loss of another 20, editors by , down to 10, active editors on English Wikipedia by if left unabated.
Several Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia’s large and growing regulation , which includes over 50 policies and nearly , words as of [update]. Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias.
Columnist and journalist Edwin Black criticizes Wikipedia for being a mixture of “truth, half truth, and some falsehoods”. Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black noted how articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an “ax to grind” on the topic.
In , the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia. As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia “makes no guarantee of validity” of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.
Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites, and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.
Critics argue that Wikipedia’s open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable. Wikipedia’s open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls , spammers , and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.
Katherine Maher , the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation’s chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, ‘we’re not an advertising service; we’re an encyclopedia.
A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell , cites Wikipedia as a “general source” that “can be a real boon” in “coming up to speed in the law governing a situation” and, “while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources”.
Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work , preferring primary sources ;  some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations.
In February , an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi , although without realizing the articles might change.
Wikipedia”, stated that “Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the Wikipedia site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information. Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues , as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by Dr.
James Heilman to improve a group of health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia’s highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer review evaluation process.
James Heilman as stating: In , researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.
Roy Rosenzweig , a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its “clear and engaging prose”, which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.
Rosenzweig also criticized the “waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history”. By example, he quoted the conclusion of Wikipedia’s article on William Clarke Quantrill.
While generally praising the article, he pointed out its “waffling” conclusion: Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style.
Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, “Even when a Wikipedia entry is per cent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage.
The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the “start” class or “stub” class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that “Wikipedia’s lack of readability to non-college readers may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing”.
Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.
The policy has sometimes proved controversial: The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China ,  and Pakistan  amongst other countries.
A study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth from July to January in each field: These numbers refer only to the quantity of articles: Through its ” Wikipedia Loves Libraries ” program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.
A study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the People and Arts category, while males focus more on Geography and Science.
Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is most underrepresented. An editorial in The Guardian in noted that women porn stars are better covered than women writers as a further example.
When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In , Wales noted that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, which predominantly consists of young males with high education levels in the developed world cf.
Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally, for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions. Biases of its own may include over-emphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.
Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford , in , studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.
Such a “mutually reverting edit pair” is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the “mutually reverting edit pairs”.
The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia’s three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush , Anarchism and Muhammad.
Researchers from the Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia’s users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia’s administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.
Dimitra Kessenides, writing for Bloomberg News Weekly, identified the ‘ filter-bubble ‘ problem as a recurrent and long-standing issue at Wikipedia. This so-called filter-bubble problem, coined by Eli Pariser , co-founder of the viral video site Upworthy , is the idea that the internet can contribute to the insularity of certain communities.
Filter bubbles have been blamed for the spread of misinformation during the presidential election and for the failure of pundits in the U. Wikipedia’s filter-bubble problem is a particularly acute threat for an organization whose stated mission is ‘to empower and engage people around the world.
Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information of graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content such as Feces , Cadaver , Human penis , Vulva , and Nudity contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.
The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation , photographs of nude children , illustrations of zoophilia , and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles.
The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer — a album from German heavy metal band Scorpions —features a picture of the album’s original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl.
The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December , access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation IWF decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article’s URL to a “blacklist” it supplies to British internet service providers.
In April , Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.
If we did, we would remove it. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status.
One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a “private citizen” rather than a ” public figure ” in the eyes of the law. A particular problem occurs in the case of an individual who is relatively unimportant and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.
In January , a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic , aka “Tron”, a deceased hacker.
On February 9, , the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron’s right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated. Wikipedia has a ” Volunteer Response Team ” that uses the OTRS system to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties.
This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project. Wikipedia has been described as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.
A group of Wikipedia editors may form a WikiProject to focus their work on a specific topic area, using its associated discussion page to coordinate changes across multiple articles.
Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation , a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.
We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome. Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the “superprotection” feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director the Wikimedia Foundation in June Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates.
These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand.
Several MediaWiki extensions are installed  to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software. The site currently uses Lucene Search 2. Computer programs called bots have been used widely to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.
An anti-vandal bot tries to detect and revert vandalism quickly and automatically. According to Andrew Lih , the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.
A ” WikiProject ” is a group of contributors who want to work together as a team to improve Wikipedia. These groups often focus on a specific topic area for example, women’s history , a specific location or a specific kind of task for example, checking newly created pages.
The English Wikipedia currently has over 2, WikiProjects and activity varies. In , in preparation for producing a print version, the English Wikipedia introduced an assessment scale of the quality of articles.
The range of quality classes begins with “Stub” very short pages , followed by “Start”, “C” and “B” in increasing order of quality. Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes: Of the about 4.
One featured article per day, as selected by editors, appears on the main page of Wikipedia. The articles can also be rated as per “importance” as judged by a WikiProject. Currently, there are 5 importance categories: For a particular article, different WikiProjects may assign different importance levels.
The Wikipedia Version 1. If an article or list receives different ratings by two or more WikiProjects, then the highest rating is used in the table, pie-charts, and bar-chart.
The software regularly auto-updates the data. Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to reach featured status via the intensive work of a few editors. Quality-wise distribution of over 5.
Importance-wise distribution of over 5. The table above prepared by the Wikipedia Version 1. In them, new data has to be entered by a Wikipedia editor i. Wikipedia receives between 25, and 60, page requests per second, depending on time of day.
The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia. To increase speed further, rendered pages are cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated, allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most common page accesses.
Wikipedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of Linux servers mainly Ubuntu. In accordance with growing amounts of incoming donations exceeding seven digits in as recently reported,  the Foundation has reached a threshold of assets which qualify its consideration under the principles of industrial organization economics to indicate the need for the re-investment of donations into the internal research and development of the Foundation.
Community-produced news publications include the English Wikipedia’s The Signpost , founded in by Michael Snow, an attorney, Wikipedia administrator and former chair of the Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees.
There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education. When the project was started in , all text in Wikipedia was covered by the GNU Free Documentation License GFDL , a copyleft license permitting the redistribution, creation of derivative works, and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work.
This made it a poor choice for a general reference work: In December , the Creative Commons license was released: The license gained popularity among bloggers and others distributing creative works on the Web.
The Wikipedia project sought the switch to the Creative Commons. In April , Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June The handling of media files e.
Some language editions, such as the English Wikipedia, include non-free image files under fair use doctrine, while the others have opted not to, in part because of the lack of fair use doctrines in their home countries e.
Media files covered by free content licenses e. Wikipedia’s accommodation of varying international copyright laws regarding images has led some to observe that its photographic coverage of topics lags behind the quality of the encyclopedic text.
The Wikimedia Foundation is not a licensor of content, but merely a hosting service for the contributors and licensors of the Wikipedia. This position has been successfully defended in court.
Because Wikipedia content is distributed under an open license, anyone can reuse or re-distribute it at no charge. The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms, both online and offline, outside of the Wikipedia website.
Obtaining the full contents of Wikipedia for reuse presents challenges, since direct cloning via a web crawler is discouraged. Several languages of Wikipedia also maintain a reference desk , where volunteers answer questions from the general public.
Wikipedia’s original medium was for users to read and edit content using any standard web browser through a fixed Internet connection. And the shift to mobile editing has lagged even more.
One principal concern cited by The New York Times for the “worry” is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment.
Bloomberg Businessweek reported in July that Google’s Android mobile apps have dominated the largest share of global smartphone shipments for with Directly after the posted web interview, the representatives stated that Wikimedia would be applying an all-inclusive approach to accommodate as many mobile access systems as possible in its efforts for expanding general mobile access, including BlackBerry and the Windows Phone system, making market share a secondary issue.
In June Wikipedia launched en. In a newer mobile service was officially released,  located at en. Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged. Many devices and applications optimize or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata See Wikipedia: Metadata , such as geoinformation.
Wikipedia Zero is an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries. Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown both maintain editing Wikipedia with smart phones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors.
Several years running the number of Wikipedia editors has been falling and Tom Simonite of MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this.
Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo.
Lih fears for Wikipedia’s long term future while Brown fears problems with Wikipedia will remain and rival encyclopedias will not replace it. Wikipedia is extremely popular. In February , The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites, stating “With 18 billion page views and nearly million unique visitors a month [ In addition to logistic growth in the number of its articles,  Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in According to “Wikipedia Readership Survey “, the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36, with a rough parity between genders.
Almost half of Wikipedia readers visit the site more than five times a month, and a similar number of readers specifically look for Wikipedia in search engine results.
Wikipedia’s content has also been used in academic studies, books, conferences, and court cases. Wikipedia has also been used as a source in journalism,   often without attribution, and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia.
In , Time magazine recognized Wikipedia’s participation along with YouTube , Reddit , MySpace , and Facebook  in the rapid growth of online collaboration and interaction by millions of people worldwide.
In July Wikipedia was the focus of a minute documentary on BBC Radio 4  which argued that, with increased usage and awareness, the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the word is one of a select band of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar Google , Facebook, YouTube that they no longer need explanation.
On September 28, , Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the minister of cultural resources and activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama.
He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia, “the seventh most consulted website”, to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues.
Already, the presidential entries are being edited, dissected and debated countless times each day. Active participation also has an impact. Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated audience.
A working group led by Peter Stone formed as a part of the Stanford -based project One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence in its report called Wikipedia “the best-known example of crowdsourcing Wikipedia won two major awards in May The second was a Judges’ Webby Award for the “community” category.
In , readers of brandchannel. The award was presented to Wales by David Weinberger. In , Wikipedia was awarded both the annual Erasmus Prize , which recognizes exceptional contributions to culture, society or social sciences,  and the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award on International Cooperation.
Many parodies target Wikipedia’s openness and susceptibility to inserted inaccuracies, with characters vandalizing or modifying the online encyclopedia project’s articles. Comedian Stephen Colbert has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term wikiality , meaning “together we can create a reality that we all agree on—the reality we just agreed on”.
In an episode of the television comedy The Office U. Viewers of the show tried to add the episode’s mention of the page as a section of the actual Wikipedia article on negotiation, but this effort was prevented by other users on the article’s talk page.
Perry Cox reacts to a patient who says that a Wikipedia article indicates that the raw food diet reverses the effects of bone cancer by retorting that the same editor who wrote that article also wrote the Battlestar Galactica episode guide.
In , the comedic website CollegeHumor produced a video sketch named “Professor Wikipedia”, in which the fictitious Professor Wikipedia instructs a class with a medley of unverifiable and occasionally absurd statements.
The Dilbert comic strip from May 8, , features a character supporting an improbable claim by saying “Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia. Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles.
In , comedian Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.
On August 23, , the New Yorker website published a cartoon with this caption: In December , John Julius Norwich stated, in a letter published in The Times newspaper, that as an historian he resorted to Wikipedia “at least a dozen times a day”, and had never yet caught it out.
He described it as “a work of reference as useful as any in existence”, with so wide a range that it is almost impossible to find a person, place or thing that it has left uncovered, and that he could never have written his last two books without it.
Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects, which are also wikis run by the Wikimedia Foundation. These other Wikimedia projects include Wiktionary , a dictionary project launched in December ,  Wikiquote , a collection of quotations created a week after Wikimedia launched, Wikibooks , a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts, Wikimedia Commons , a site devoted to free-knowledge multimedia, Wikinews , for citizen journalism, and Wikiversity , a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities.
In Wikivoyage , an editable travel guide, and Wikidata , an editable knowledge base, launched. The most obvious economic effect of Wikipedia has been the death of commercial encyclopedias, especially the printed versions, e.
I for one can’t imagine anything more frightening. For instance, Chris Anderson , the editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine , wrote in Nature that the ” wisdom of crowds ” approach of Wikipedia will not displace top scientific journals , with their rigorous peer review process.
There is also an ongoing debate about the influence of Wikipedia on the biography publishing business. Wikipedia has seen been widely used as a corpus for linguistic research in computational linguistics , information retrieval and natural language processing.
In particular, it commonly serves as a target knowledge base for the entity linking problem, which is then called “wikification”,  and to the related problem of word sense disambiguation.
A MIT study suggests that words used on Wikipedia articles end up in scientific publications. A number of interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded.
This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links , with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK.
The user interface and part of the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until Several free-content, collaborative encyclopedias were created around the same period as Wikipedia e.
Everything2 ,  with many later being merged into the project e. The h2g2 encyclopedia is relatively light-hearted, focusing on articles which are both witty and informative.
Subsequent collaborative knowledge websites have drawn inspiration from Wikipedia. Some, such as Susning. Others use more traditional peer review , such as Encyclopedia of Life and the online wiki encyclopedias Scholarpedia and Citizendium.
The latter was started by Sanger in an attempt to create a reliable alternative to Wikipedia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Internet encyclopedia. For Wikipedia’s home page, see Wikipedia’s Main Page.
For Wikipedia’s visitor introduction, see Wikipedia’s About Page. For other uses, see Wikipedia disambiguation. For other encyclopedias, see List of encyclopedias.
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The logo of Wikipedia , a globe featuring glyphs from several writing systems [notes 1]. Main Page of the English Wikipedia on April 6, Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger.
Number of English Wikipedia articles . Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia. Health information on Wikipedia. Parts of this article those related to d: Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Culture and the arts: Gender bias in Wikipedia. This section is transcluded from English Wikipedia. This section needs to be updated. Science information on Wikipedia. In cooperation with Wikimedia foundation.
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Coordination in Wikipedia” PDF. Retrieved June 27, The know-it-all Web site”. There is a certain mindset associated with unmoderated Usenet groups [ There is a deeper problem [ Namely, as a community, Wikipedia lacks the habit or tradition of respect for expertise.
As a community, far from being elitist, it is anti-elitist which, in this context, means that expertise is not accorded any special respect, and snubs and disrespect of expertise is tolerated.