Dr tikov subwoofer single ep 2 album saratov dreams vol2 new 2012 wma – 10 10 – ar


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Dr tikov subwoofer single ep 2 album saratov dreams vol2 new 2012 wma

Dr tikov subwoofer single ep 2 album saratov dreams vol2 new 2012 wma

Dr tikov subwoofer single ep 2 album saratov dreams vol2 new 2012 wma

Dr tikov subwoofer single ep 2 album saratov dreams vol2 new 2012 wma

17.03.2018 – Inhe appeared with Rhymefest in a directed by Konee Rok. Scratching — Within hip hop culture, scratching is one of the measures of a DJs skills.

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1. 10The Side Man was housed in a cabinet that contained the sound-generating circuitry. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, while often used to refer solely to rapping, hip hop more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture.
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Saratov doing everything you can do on vinyl, but in your CD player. The CDN provides real time scratching with true vinyl sound and feel. A built in BeatkeeperTM with InterlockTM function can align all cue points, make perfect loops, and, if you choose, automatically lock vol2 players together on the beat.

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Sony Mini Hi-Fi System. Arcam Alpha 9 Integrated amplifier. Arcam Alpha 2012 Tuner: Facility is also provided for wired mics, external media source input and 4O passive extension speaker, all controlled by the built-in mixer.

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If the DJ is performing a mix for a station or television station. At club sets, some DJs may use a monitor speaker to hear the main mix. This monitor speaker can have its volume increased or decreased as needed, DJ mixers have a plug that is connected to the wall to supply electric power for the unit.

DJ mixing played a key role in the development of hip hop music, in hip hop music and occasionally in other genres, the turntable is used as a musical instrument by DJs, who use turntables along with a DJ mixer to create unique rhythmic sounds.

Manipulation of a record as part of the music, rather than for normal playback or mixing, is called turntablism, the basis of turntablism, and its best known technique, is scratching, pioneered by Grand Wizzard Theodore.

It was not until Herbie Hancocks Rockit in that the movement was recognized in popular music outside of a hip hop context. In the s, many hip hop DJs use DJ CD players or digital record emulator devices to create scratching sounds, nevertheless, DJ mixing also played a key role in disco music in the s.

In disco clubs, DJs would use mixers to transition from one song to another, one of the pioneers of DJ mixing equipment design was Rudy Bozak. Audio console — In the s, a mixer is able to control analog or digital signals, depending on the type of mixer.

The modified signals are summed to produce the output signals. A typical, simple application combines signals from two microphones into an amplifier that drives one set of speakers simultaneously, a DJ mixer may have only two channels, for mixing two record players.

A coffeehouses tiny stage might only have a six channel mixer, a nightclub stages mixer for rock music shows may have 24 channels for mixing the signals from a rhythm section, lead guitar and several vocalists.

A mixing console for a large concert may have 48 channels, a mixing console in a professional recording studio may have as many as 96 channels. In practice, mixers do more than simply mix signals, some mixers have onboard electronic effects, such as reverb.

Some mixers intended for small venue live performance applications may include a power amplifier. A mixing console is also known as a mixer, audio console, mixing desk, sound mixer, sound board.

A typical analog mixing board has three sections, Channel inputs Master controls Audio level metering The channel input strips are usually a bank of identical monaural or stereo input channels.

The master control section has sub-group faders, master faders, master auxiliary mixing bus level controls, in addition it may have solo monitoring controls, a stage talk-back microphone control, muting controls and an output matrix mixer.

On smaller mixers the inputs are on the left of the mixing board, in larger mixers, the master controls are in the center with input faders and channel strips on both sides.

The audio level meters may be above the input and master sections or they may be integrated into the input, the audio level meters indicate when the signals are clipping. Each signal that is plugged into the mixer has its own channel, depending on the specific mixer, each channel is stereo or monaural.

On most mixers, each channel has an XLR input, the smallest, least expensive mixers may only have one XLR input with the other inputs being line inputs. These can be used by a singer-guitarist or other small acts, below each input, there are usually several rotary controls.

The first knob is typically a trim or gain control, the inputs buffer the signal from the external device and this controls the amount of amplification or attenuation needed to bring the signal to a nominal level for processing.

This stage is where most noise of interference is picked up, balanced inputs and connectors, such as XLR or phone connectors, reduce interference problems. Music — Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

The common elements of music are pitch, rhythm, dynamics, different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Common sayings such as the harmony of the spheres and it is music to my ears point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to.

However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, There is no noise, the creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context.

There are many types of music, including music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early s hard rock and heavy metal, within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art.

According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the music is derived from midc. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica the art of music and this is derived from the. Greek mousike of the Muses, from fem.

In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace.

With the advent of recording, records of popular songs. Some music lovers create mix tapes of their songs, which serve as a self-portrait. An environment consisting solely of what is most ardently loved, amateur musicians can compose or perform music for their own pleasure, and derive their income elsewhere.

Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers or session musicians, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings, There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians.

Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians, in community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles such as community concert bands and community orchestras.

However, there are many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is also recorded and distributed. Live concert recordings are popular in classical music and in popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped live concerts are prized by music lovers.

Radio personality — A radio personality or radio presenter, commonly referred to as a Disc Jockey or DJ for short, is a person who has an on-air position in radio broadcasting. A radio personality that hosts a show is also known as a radio host.

Radio personalities who introduce and play selections of recorded music are known as disc jockeys. The term has evolved to describe a person who mixes a continuous flow of recorded music in real time.

Increasingly in the s, radio personalities are expected to supplement their on-air work by posting information online and this may be either to generate additional revenue or connect with listeners.

In the past, the disc jockey was exclusively used to describe on-air radio personalities who played recorded music. Talk radio — Talk radio personalities often discuss social and political issues from a political point of view.

Some examples are Dan Patrick, Tony Kornheiser, Colin Cowherd, Satellite radio — Satellite radio personalities are not subject to government broadcast regulations and are allowed to play explicit music.

Howard Stern, Opie and Anthony, Dr. Laura, radio personality salaries are influenced by years of experience and education. The salary of a radio personality will differ from a national radio personality.

National personality pay can be in the millions because of the audience size. Over time a radio personality could be paid to do voice-overs for commercials, television shows, universities offer classes in radio broadcasting and often have a college radio station, where students can obtain on-the-job training and course credit.

Nightclub — A nightclub is an entertainment venue and bar which serves alcoholic beverages that usually operates late into the night. Another distinction is that whereas many pubs and sports bars aim at a market, nightclubs typically aim at a niche market of music and dancing enthusiasts.

The upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities, nightclubs are much more likely than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry.

Some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with ripped jeans or other clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Friday and Saturday night, most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as house music or gothic rock.

Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, being built in and starting off as a hall, originally functioning as a home for dance. During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capones involvement and police bribery.

In Harlem, Connies Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences, before and even some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or mostly live bands.

At the end of the s, several of the bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing. However, the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs, disco has its roots in the underground club scene.

It brought together people from all walks of life and backgrounds and these clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. Disco allowed patrons to explore sexuality and push the envelope on the dance floor, disco clubs acted as an escape from such depressing environments and acted as the fantasy marginalized peoples could escape to forget oppression and racism.

Disco clubs originally functioned as liberated party spaces and were seen as places of political statement, a smooth mix of long single records to keep people dancing all night long.

Music festival — A music festival is a festival oriented towards music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as musical genre, nationality, or locality of musicians, or holiday.

They are commonly held outdoors, and are inclusive of other attractions such as food and merchandise vending, performance art. Many festivals are annual, or repeat at some other interval, some, including many rock festivals, are held only once.

Some festivals are organized as for-profit concerts and others are benefits for a specific cause, another type of music festival is the educative type, organized annually in local communities, regionally, or nationally, for the benefit of amateur musicians of all ages and grades of achievement.

The Pythian Games at Delphi included musical performances, and may be one of the earliest festivals known, during the Middle Ages, festivals were often held as competitions.

Entrants perform prepared pieces in front of an audience which includes competitors and they also usually receive a certificate, classified according to merit, and some may win trophies. The competitive element is played down, however, as the important aspect is that participants can learn from one another.

Such festivals aim to provide a friendly and supportive platform for musicians to share in the excitement of making music, for many, they provide a bridge from lessons and examinations to performing confidently in public.

Milwaukee, Wisconsins day event, Summerfest, promotes itself as The Worlds Largest Music Festival, operating annually since , the festival attracts between , and 1,, people each year, and hosts over musical acts.

The Woodstock Festival in drew nearly , attendees, the largest annual greenfield music festival in the world is Roskilde Festival in Denmark, which attracts about , spectators each year. Glastonbury Festival has a capacity of about , spectators, for a more complete listing of active and defunct festivals by region, see Category, Music festivals by country.

Some sections may also have links to related lists of music festivals by country, L. Turntablists typically use two or more turntables and headphones to cue up desired start points on different records, the word turntablist was originated by Luis DJ Disk Quintanilla.

Some turntablists seek to have recognized as traditional musicians capable of interacting and improvising with other performers. The use of the turntable as an instrument has its roots dating back to the s, s.

Experimental composers used them to sample and create music that was produced by the turntable. Cages Imaginary Landscape No. Examples of turntable effects can also be found on popular records produced in the s and s, creedence Clearwater Revivals self-titled debut album features a backspin effect in the song Walk on the Water.

However, turntablism as it is known today did not surface until the development of hip hop in the late s, Turntablism as a modern art form and musical practice has its roots within African-American inner city hip hop and hip hop culture of the late s.

Kool Hercs invention of break-beat DJing is generally regarded as the development in hip hop history. His influence on the concept of DJ as turntablist is equally profound, to understand the significance of this achievement, it is important to first define the break.

Briefly, the break of a song is a musical fragment only seconds in length, Kool Herc introduced the break-beat technique as a way of extending the break indefinitely.

This is done by buying two of the record, finding the break on each record, and switching from one to the other using the DJ mixer. Using that idea, Grandmaster Flash elaborated on Kool Hercs invention of break-beat DJing and came up with the quick-mix theory and he described it as being.

Kool Hercs revolutionary techniques set the course for the development of turntablism as an art form in significant ways, most important, however, he developed a new form of DJing that did not consist of just playing and mixing records one after the other.

Grand Wizzard Theodore, an apprentice of Flash, who isolated the most recognizable technique of turntablism, [ Eshun. Phonograph record — The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc.

The phonograph disc record was the medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the cylinder from the late s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed, by the late s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in The phonograph record has made a resurgence in the early 21st century —9.

Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from to , as of ,48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide,18 in the United States and 30 in other countries.

Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to heat or broken. The large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, in the s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound.

Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in were played back as sound for the first time in , along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as , these are the earliest known recordings of sound.

In , Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, unlike the phonautograph, it was capable of both recording and reproducing sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no evidence that Edisons phonograph was based on Scotts phonautograph.

Edison first tried recording sound on a paper tape, with the idea of creating a telephone repeater analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on.

The tinfoil was wrapped around a metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately, Edison also invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats.

A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved phonograph that used a wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. This proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device, the wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century.

Berliners earliest discs, first marketed in , but only in Europe, were Compact Cassette — The Compact Cassette or Musicassette, also commonly called cassette tape, audio cassette, or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.

It was released by Philips in , having developed in Hasselt. Compact cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a cassette, or as a fully recordable blank cassette.

Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers, the first cassette player designed for use in car dashes was introduced in Between the early s and the early s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and later the compact disc.

Compact Cassettes contain two miniature spools, between which a magnetically coated, polyester-type plastic film is passed and wound and these spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell.

This reversal is achieved either by flipping the cassette, or by having the machine itself change the direction of tape movement. In , decades before the introduction of the Compact Cassette, AEG released the first reel-to-reel tape recorder and it was based on the invention of the magnetic tape by Fritz Pfleumer, which used similar technology but with open reels.

These instruments were expensive and relatively difficult to use and were therefore used mostly by professionals in radio stations. In , following four years of development, RCA Victor introduced the stereo, quarter-inch, reversible, however, it was a large cassette, and offered few pre-recorded tapes.

Despite the multiple versions, it failed, consumer use of tape only took off in the early s, after playback machines reached a comfortable, user-friendly design. This was achieved primarily by the introduction of transistors which replaced the bulky, fragile, reel-to-reel tape then became more suitable to household use, but still remained an esoteric product.

The team at Philips was led by Lou Ottens in Hasselt, Philips was competing with Telefunken and Grundig in a race to establish its cassette tape as the worldwide standard, and it wanted support from Japanese electronics manufacturers.

By over , recorders had been sold in the US alone, by ,85 manufacturers had sold over 2. By the end of the s, the business was worth an estimated million dollars. In the early years sound quality was mediocre, but it improved dramatically by the early s when it caught up with the quality of 8-track tape, the Compact Cassette went on to become a popular alternative to the inch vinyl LP during the late s.

The mass production of blank Compact Cassettes began in in Hanover, prerecorded music cassettes were launched in Europe in late Compact disc — Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format released in and co-developed by Philips and Sony.

The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data. The first commercially available Audio CD player, the Sony CDP, was released October in Japan, standard CDs have a diameter of millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about MiB of data.

The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres, they are used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio. At the time of the introduction in , a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive.

By , hard drives commonly offered as much space as a thousand CDs. In , revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T.

Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record information on an optical transparent foil that is lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp.

Russells patent application was first filed in , and he was granted a patent in , following litigation, Sony and Philips licensed Russells patents in the s. The compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals.

Prototypes were developed by Philips and Sony independently in the late s, although originally dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.

In , Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in , after their commercial release in , compact discs and their players were extremely popular.

The success of the disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, who came together to agree upon and develop compatible hardware. The unified design of the disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company.

However, due to the performance of the analog format. In typical use, at least two CDJs are plugged into a DJ mixer, CDJs have jog wheels and pitch faders that allow manipulation of the digital music file similar to a vinyl record on a DJ turntable.

Many have additional features such as loops and beat analysis that are not present on turntables, additionally, some can function as DJ controllers to control the playback of digital files in DJ software running on a laptop instead of playing the files on the CDJ.

It is similar in size to the CDJ, but comes with scratching abilities and effects and this makes it possible to play MP3 music from a USB memory stick. The first Pioneer player to have a Jog Dial, allowing for cueing of the CD unlike rack-mounted CD players that were common at the time and it included a loop function, as well as loop-out adjust, and other facilities associated with looping samples from the track being played.

It marked the first inclusion of a system as well as front-loading of CDs. Laptop — Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use.

Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, as of , there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, Internet surfing using sites such as YouTube and for personal multimedia, most era laptops also have integrated webcams and built-in microphones.

Laptops can be powered either from a battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter. Hardware specifications, such as the speed and memory capacity. Design elements, form factor, and construction can also vary significantly between models depending on intended use, as portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes.

The terms laptop and notebook are used interchangeably to describe a computer in English. Regardless of the etymology, by the late s, the terms were interchangeable, as the personal computer became feasible in , the idea of a portable personal computer soon followed.

As 8-bit CPU machines became widely accepted, the number of portables increased rapidly, the Osborne 1, released in , used the Zilog Z80 and weighed It had no battery, a 5 in CRT screen, in the same year the first laptop-sized portable computer, the Epson HX, was announced.

The Epson had an LCD screen, a battery. From onward, several new techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad, the pointing stick.

Pseudonym — A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name. Historically, they have taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms.

Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones, actors, musicians, and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to mask their ethnic backgrounds.

A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, which is the name of another person and this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a front name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the s and s.

See also pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship, sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person.

This is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name, in many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a persons new legal name.

He then changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam, likewise some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames that had been in their families for generations.

Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, and dummy corporations to hide their identity, a pen name, or nom de plume, is a pseudonym adopted by an author.

In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used pen names. A pen name may be used if a real name is likely to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual.

Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use different pen names to avoid confusing their readers, in some cases, an author may become better known by his pen name than his real name.

Audio mixing — Audio mixing is the process by which multiple sounds are combined into one or more channels. In the process, a volume level, frequency content, dynamics.

Also, effects such as reverberation and echo may be added and this practical, aesthetic, or otherwise creative treatment is done in order to produce a finished version that is appealing to listeners.

Audio mixing is practiced for music, film, television and live sound, the process is generally carried out by a mixing engineer operating a mixing console or digital audio workstation.

Before the introduction of recording, all the sounds and effects that were to be part of a recording were mixed together at one time during a live performance.

If the sound blend was not satisfactory, or if one made a mistake. Audio mixing for film and television is a process during the stage of a moving image program by which a multitude of recorded sounds are combined.

In the process, the signal level, frequency content, dynamics and panoramic position are commonly manipulated. The process takes place on a mix stage, typically in a studio or theater, normally the engineer will mix four main audio elements, speech, ambience, sound effects, and music.

Live sound mixing is the process of electrically blending together multiple sound sources at an event using a mixing console. Sounds used include those from instruments, voices, and pre-recorded material, individual sources may be equalised and routed to effect processors to ultimately be amplified and reproduced via loudspeakers.

The live sound engineer balances the various sources in a way that best suits the needs of the event. Beatmatching — The technique was developed to keep the people from leaving the dancefloor at the end of the song.

Beatmatching is no longer considered a novelty, and new digital software has made the technique easier to master. The beatmatching technique consists of the steps, While a record is playing, start a second record playing.

Use gain control on the mixer to match the levels of the two records, restart and slip-cue the new record at the right time, begin the new record on beat with the record currently playing.

Pay attention to structures, careful phrasing can make the mix seamless. Continue this process until the two records are in sync with each other and it can be difficult to sync the two records perfectly, so manual adjustment of the records is necessary to maintain the beat synchronization.

Before fading in the new track, check that the beats of two tracks match by listening to both channels together in the headphones, as the sound from the speakers can reach you with a delay.

Gradually fade in parts of the new track while fading out the old track, while in the mix, ensure that the tracks are still synchronized, adjusting the records if needed. The fade can be repeated several times, for example, from the first track, fade to the track, then back to first.

One of the key things to consider when beatmatching is the tempo of songs, and the musical theory behind the songs. Attempting to beatmatch songs with completely different BPMs, will result in one or both of the songs sounding too fast or too slow.

When beatmatching songs of similar BPMs it is important to consider the genre of each song, while most songs with the same BPM have similar beat structures, some genres will feature songs that wont mix well with others.

When beatmatching, a technique used by many disc jockeys around the world is to vary the equalization of both tracks. Doing so creates a transition that the audience would generally react to better.

However, some modern DJ software can change pitch and tempo independently using time-stretching and pitch-shifting, allowing harmonic mixing. There is also a feature in most modern DJ software to change the tempo but keeping the original pitch, beatmatching was invented by Francis Grasso in the late s and early s.

Initially he was counting the tempo with a metronome and looking for records with the same tempo. Fade audio engineering — In audio engineering, a fade is a gradual increase or decrease in the level of an audio signal.

The term can also be used for film cinematography or theatre lighting in much the same way, a recorded song may be gradually reduced to silence at its end, or may gradually increase from silence at the beginning.

Fading-out can serve as a solution for pieces of music that contain no obvious ending. Both fades and cross-fades are very valuable since they allow the engineer to quickly and easily make sure that the beginning and it is necessary that there is a clear section of silence prior to the audio.

A cross-fade can be manipulated through its rates and coefficients in order to create different styles of fading, almost every fade is different, this means that the fade parameters must be adjusted according to the individual needs of the mix.

Club DJs in house music and techno use DJ mixers, two or more sound sources along with a skill called beatmatching to make seamless dance mixes for dancers at raves, nightclubs, though relatively rare, songs can fade out then fade back in.

Esterhazy appears to have understood the message, allowing the musicians to leave, gustav Holsts Neptune, the mystic, part of the orchestral suite The Planets written between and , is another early example of music to have a fade-out ending during performance.

Until the imagination knew no difference between sound and silence, the technique of ending a spoken or musical recording by fading out the sound goes back to the earliest days of recording.

An rpm record called The Spirit of 76, a narrated musical vignette with martial fife-and-drum that gets louder as it nears the listener and quieter as it moves away, there are early examples that appear to bear no obvious relationship to movement.

By the early s longer songs were being put on both sides of records, with the fading out at the end of Side One. Records at the time only about two to five minutes of music per side.

The segue allowed for longer songs, symphonies and live concert recordings, however, shorter songs continued to use the fade-out for unclear reasons—for example, Fred Astaires movie theme Flying Down to Rio.

Even using fade-out as a segue device doesnt seem obvious, though we certainly take it for granted today and it is possible that movies were an influence here. Cue audio — To cue audio is to determine the desired initial playback point in a piece of recorded music.

It is technique used often used radio broadcasting and DJing, DJs typically find the desired start place on a record, tape, CD, or other medium by listening to the recording with headphones and manipulating the turntable or other playback controls.

DJs use headphones to cue up the point, this means that the audience cannot hear the playback until the DJ wants them to. Once the recording is cued up to the start point. The goal of cueing is to avoid dead air, that is, a subtype of cueing is slip cueing.

To slip cue a record, there has to be a felt mat under the record, the DJ finds the desired start point then leaves the stylus at the start point while holding the side of the record, with the turntable spinning.

The DJ can then release the record and the music will start immediately, some DJs mark parts of a record with stickers to make it easier to find parts of record tracks. One dictionary definition is to Set a piece of audio or video equipment in readiness to play.

Headphones — Headphones are a pair of small electronic or electric listening devices that are designed to be worn on or around the head over a users ears. They are electroacoustic transducers, which convert a signal to a corresponding sound in the users ear.

Headphones are designed to allow a user to listen to an audio source privately, in contrast to a loudspeaker. Headphones are also known as earspeakers, earphones or, colloquially, circumaural and supra-aural headphones use a band over the top of the head to hold the speakers in place.

The other type, known as earbuds or earphones consist of units that plug into the users ear canal. In the context of telecommunication, a headset is a combination of headphone and microphone, the first headphones were developed in the late s for use by telephone operators, to keep their hands free.

Initially the audio quality was mediocre and a forward was the invention of high fidelity headphones. Headphones are made in a range of different audio reproduction quality capabilities, headsets designed for telephone use typically cannot reproduce sound with the high fidelity of expensive units designed for music listening by audiophiles.

Due to the spread of wireless devices in recent years headphones are used by people in public places such as sidewalks, grocery stores. The latter two types of employees use headphones with an integrated microphone, Headphones originated from the earpiece, and were the only way to listen to electrical audio signals before amplifiers were developed.

The first truly successful set was developed in by Nathaniel Baldwin, some very sensitive headphones, such as those manufactured by Brandes around , were commonly used for early radio work.

These early headphones used moving iron drivers, with either single ended or balanced armatures, the requirement for high sensitivity meant that no damping was used, thus the sound quality was crude.

These early models lacked padding, and often produced excessive clamping forces on the wearers head and their impedance varied, headphones used in telegraph and telephone work had an impedance of 75 ohms.

Those used with wireless radio had to be more sensitive and were made with more turns of finer wire. Impedance of to ohms was common, which suited both crystal sets and triode receivers, in early powered radios, the headphone was part of the vacuum tubes plate circuit and carried dangerous voltages.

It was normally connected directly to the high voltage battery terminal. The use of electrical connections meant that users could be shocked if they touched the bare headphone connections while adjusting an uncomfortable headset.

DJ controller — DJ controllers are devices used to help DJs mix music with DJ software using knobs, encoders, jog wheels, faders, backlit buttons, touch strips, and other components.

They are used to easier control of the software than the computer keyboard and touchpad on a laptop, or the touchscreen on tablet computers. DJ controllers do not mix audio signals like DJ mixers, rather, many DJ controllers also have a built in sound card with 4 output channels, which allows the DJ to preview music in headphones before playing it on the main output.

However, DJ controllers are much cheaper than two turntables or CDJs plus a mixer, unlike turntables, controllers can take advantage of the flexibility of computer software, for example, by allowing the DJ to store multiple cue points with music files.

Also, DJ software allows users to remap the components of controllers to perform different functions than the manufacturer intended. Some DJ controllers break from the conventional two jog wheels and a layout and are designed to be easily mapped however the user wants.

Some controllers are designed to be used either for live PA performances with such as Ableton Live or with DJ software. A few DJ controllers, most notably the Novation Dicers, are designed to be used with timecode vinyl, DJ controllers are usually designed to work with only one or a few DJ software programs endorsed by the manufacturer.

However, it may take considerable effort to get a controller to work with software it was not designed for, and some controls may not make sense with other software. Many manufacturers saw the success of the VCI and started selling their own similar devices, unlike the original VCI, some of those devices had integrated sound cards.

In , Native Instruments released the Traktor Kontrol S4, which used high resolution jog wheels, the Mk2 of the Kontrol S4, released in , uses standard HID signals rather than a proprietary protocol to communicate with the computer.

Microphone — A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. Several different types of microphone are in use, which employ different methods to convert the air pressure variations of a wave to an electrical signal.

Microphones typically need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced, in order to speak to larger groups of people, a need arose to increase the volume of the human voice.

The earliest devices used to achieve this were acoustic megaphones, some of the first examples, from fifth century BC Greece, were theater masks with horn-shaped mouth openings that acoustically amplified the voice of actors in amphitheatres.

In , the English physicist Robert Hooke was the first to experiment with an other than air with the invention of the lovers telephone made of stretched wire with a cup attached at each end.

German inventor Johann Philipp Reis designed an early sound transmitter that used a strip attached to a vibrating membrane that would produce intermittent current. Better results were achieved with the transmitter design in Scottish-American Alexander Graham Bells telephone of — the diaphragm was attached to a conductive rod in an acid solution.

These systems, however, gave a poor sound quality. The first microphone that enabled proper voice telephony was the carbon microphone and this was independently developed by David Edward Hughes in England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the US.

Although Edison was awarded the first patent in mid, Hughes had demonstrated his working device in front of many witnesses some years earlier, the carbon microphone is the direct prototype of todays microphones and was critical in the development of telephony, broadcasting and the recording industries.

Thomas Edison refined the carbon microphone into his carbon-button transmitter of and this microphone was employed at the first ever radio broadcast, a performance at the New York Metropolitan Opera House in Wente of Western Electric developed the next breakthrough with the first condenser microphone, in , the first practical moving coil microphone was built.

The Marconi Skykes or magnetophon, developed by Captain H. Also in , the microphone was introduced, another electromagnetic type, believed to have been developed by Harry F. Over the years these microphones were developed by companies, most notably RCA that made large advancements in pattern control.

With television and film technology booming there was demand for high fidelity microphones, electro-Voice responded with their Academy Award-winning shotgun microphone in During the second half of 20th century development advanced quickly with the Shure Brothers bringing out the SM58, digital was pioneered by Milab in with the DM The latest research developments include the use of optics, lasers and interferometers.

Effects unit — An effects unit or pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters how a musical instrument or other audio source sounds. Musicians, audio engineers and record producers use effects units during live performances or in the studio, typically with electric guitar, electronic keyboard, while guitar effects are most frequently used with electric or electronic instruments, effects can also be used with acoustic instruments, drums and vocals.

Rackmounted or audio console-integrated reverb effects are used with vocals in live sound and sound recording. Examples of common units include wah-wah pedals, fuzzboxes and reverb units.

A stompbox or pedal is a metal or plastic box placed on the floor in front of the musician and connected to the instrument. Pedals are usually the least expensive format, a rackmount device mounts on a standard inch equipment rack and usually contains several types of effects.

A pedal-style unit may be called a box, stompbox. When a musician has multiple effects in a rack mounted road case, Effects units are available in a variety of formats or form factors.

Stompboxes are usually the smallest, least expensive, and most rugged effects units, rackmount devices are generally more expensive and offer a wider range of functions. An effects unit can consist of analog or digital circuitry or a combination of the two, during a live performance, the effect is plugged into the electrical signal path of the instrument.

In the studio, the instrument or other sound-sources auxiliary output is patched into the effect, form factors are part of a studio or musicians outboard gear. Stompboxes are small plastic or metal chassis which usually lie on the floor or in a pedalboard to be operated by the users feet, pedals are often rectangle-shaped, but there are a range of other shapes.

Typical simple stompboxes have a single footswitch, one to three potentiometers for controlling the effect, and a single LED that indicates if the effect is on, depending on the type of pedal, the potentiometers may control different parameters of the effect.

For a chorus effect, for example, the knobs may control the depth, some pedals have two knobs stacked on top of each other, enabling the unit to provide two knobs per single knob space. An effects chain or signal chain is formed by connecting two or more stompboxes, effect chains are typically created between the guitar and the amp or between the preamplifier and the power amp.

Reverberation — Reverberation, in psychoacoustics and acoustics, is the persistence of sound after a sound is produced. This is most noticeable when the sound source stops but the reflections continue, decreasing in amplitude, until they reach zero amplitude.

In comparison to an echo that is a minimum of 50 to ms after the initial sound. As time passes, the amplitude of the reflections is reduced until it is reduced to zero, Reverberation is not limited to indoor spaces as it exists in forests and other outdoor environments where reflection exists.

Reverberation occurs naturally when a person sings, talks or plays an instrument acoustically in a hall or performance space with sound-reflective surfaces. The sound of reverberation is often added to the vocals of singers in live sound systems.

The time it takes for a signal to drop by 60 dB is the reverberation time, RT60 is the time required for reflections of a direct sound to decay 60 dB. Reverberation time is stated as a single value, if measured as a wide band signal, however, being frequency dependent.

Being frequency dependent, the time measured in narrow bands will differ depending on the frequency band being measured. For precision, it is important to know what ranges of frequencies are being described by a time measurement.

In the late 19th century, Wallace Clement Sabine started experiments at Harvard University to investigate the impact of absorption on the reverberation time. Using a portable wind chest and organ pipes as a sound source and he found that the reverberation time is proportional to room dimensions and inversely proportional to the amount of absorption present.

The optimum reverberation time for a space in which music is played depends on the type of music that is to be played in the space, rooms used for speech typically need a shorter reverberation time so that speech can be understood more clearly.

If the reflected sound from one syllable is still heard when the syllable is spoken. Cat, Cab, and Cap may all sound very similar, if on the other hand the reverberation time is too short, tonal balance and loudness may suffer.

Reverberation effects are used in studios to add depth to sounds. Reverberation changes the perceived spectral structure of a sound, but does not alter the pitch, basic factors that affect a rooms reverberation time include the size and shape of the enclosure as well as the materials used in the construction of the room.

Every object placed within the enclosure can also affect this time, including people. Electronic musical instrument — An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics.

Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical signal that ultimately drives a loudspeaker. An electronic instrument might include a user interface for controlling its sound, often by adjusting the pitch, frequency, all electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications.

Simple electronic musical instruments are called sound effects, the border between sound effects and actual musical instruments is often hazy. Electronic musical instruments are now used in most styles of music.

Development of new musical instruments, controllers, and synthesizers continues to be a highly active. In the 18th-century, musicians and composers adapted a number of instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity.

The former instrument consisted of an instrument of over strings. The latter was an instrument with plectra activated electrically. However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source, the first electric synthesizer was invented in by Elisha Gray.

The Musical Telegraph used steel reeds oscillated by electromagnets and transmitted over a telephone line, Gray also built a simple loudspeaker device into later models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field.

A significant invention, which later had an effect on electronic music, was the audion in This was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube and which led to the generation and amplification of signals, radio broadcasting.

It has been used in many Russian movies—like Solaris—to produce unusual, Hugh Le Caine, John Hanert, Raymond Scott, composer Percy Grainger, and others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late s and s.

In Daphne Oram produced a method of synthesis, her Oramics technique, driven by drawings on a 35 mm film strip. In Thaddeus Cahill patented an instrument called the Telharmonium, using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level.

This technology was used to design the Hammond organ. Drum machine — A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums, cymbals, other percussion instruments, and often basslines.

Drum machines are most commonly associated with electronic music such as house music. They are usually used when session drummers are not available or if the production cannot afford the cost of a drummer.

Also, many modern drum machines can also produce sounds, as well as allowing the user to compose unique drum beats. In the s, most modern machines are sequencers with a sample playback or synthesizer component that specializes in the reproduction of drum timbres.

The invention could produce sixteen different rhythms, each associated with a pitch, either individually or in any combination, including en masse. Received with considerable interest when it was introduced in The next generation of rhythm machines played only pre-programmed rhythms such as mambo, tango, Chamberlin Rhythmate In Californian Harry Chamberlin constructed a tape loop-based drum machine called the Chamberlin Rhythmate.

It had 14 tape loops with a head that allowed playback of different tracks on each piece of tape. It contained a volume and a control and also had a separate amplifier with bass, treble, and volume controls.

The tape loops were of real acoustic jazz drum kits playing different style beats, with additions to tracks such as bongos, clave, castanets. The Side Man was intended as an accompaniment for the Wurlitzer organ range.

Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers, the first cassette player designed for use in car dashes was introduced in Between the early s and the early s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and later the compact disc.

Compact Cassettes contain two miniature spools, between which a magnetically coated, polyester-type plastic film is passed and wound and these spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell.

This reversal is achieved either by flipping the cassette, or by having the machine itself change the direction of tape movement. In , decades before the introduction of the Compact Cassette, AEG released the first reel-to-reel tape recorder and it was based on the invention of the magnetic tape by Fritz Pfleumer, which used similar technology but with open reels.

These instruments were expensive and relatively difficult to use and were therefore used mostly by professionals in radio stations. In , following four years of development, RCA Victor introduced the stereo, quarter-inch, reversible, however, it was a large cassette, and offered few pre-recorded tapes.

Despite the multiple versions, it failed, consumer use of tape only took off in the early s, after playback machines reached a comfortable, user-friendly design. This was achieved primarily by the introduction of transistors which replaced the bulky, fragile, reel-to-reel tape then became more suitable to household use, but still remained an esoteric product.

The team at Philips was led by Lou Ottens in Hasselt, Philips was competing with Telefunken and Grundig in a race to establish its cassette tape as the worldwide standard, and it wanted support from Japanese electronics manufacturers.

By over , recorders had been sold in the US alone, by ,85 manufacturers had sold over 2. By the end of the s, the business was worth an estimated million dollars. In the early years sound quality was mediocre, but it improved dramatically by the early s when it caught up with the quality of 8-track tape, the Compact Cassette went on to become a popular alternative to the inch vinyl LP during the late s.

The mass production of blank Compact Cassettes began in in Hanover, prerecorded music cassettes were launched in Europe in late Compact disc — Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format released in and co-developed by Philips and Sony.

The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data. The first commercially available Audio CD player, the Sony CDP, was released October in Japan, standard CDs have a diameter of millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about MiB of data.

The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres, they are used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio. At the time of the introduction in , a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive.

By , hard drives commonly offered as much space as a thousand CDs. In , revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T.

Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record information on an optical transparent foil that is lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russells patent application was first filed in , and he was granted a patent in , following litigation, Sony and Philips licensed Russells patents in the s.

The compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals.

Prototypes were developed by Philips and Sony independently in the late s, although originally dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.

In , Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in , after their commercial release in , compact discs and their players were extremely popular.

The success of the disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, who came together to agree upon and develop compatible hardware. The unified design of the disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company.

However, due to the performance of the analog format. In typical use, at least two CDJs are plugged into a DJ mixer, CDJs have jog wheels and pitch faders that allow manipulation of the digital music file similar to a vinyl record on a DJ turntable.

Many have additional features such as loops and beat analysis that are not present on turntables, additionally, some can function as DJ controllers to control the playback of digital files in DJ software running on a laptop instead of playing the files on the CDJ.

It is similar in size to the CDJ, but comes with scratching abilities and effects and this makes it possible to play MP3 music from a USB memory stick. The first Pioneer player to have a Jog Dial, allowing for cueing of the CD unlike rack-mounted CD players that were common at the time and it included a loop function, as well as loop-out adjust, and other facilities associated with looping samples from the track being played.

It marked the first inclusion of a system as well as front-loading of CDs. Laptop — Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, as of , there is often no longer any difference.

Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, Internet surfing using sites such as YouTube and for personal multimedia, most era laptops also have integrated webcams and built-in microphones.

Laptops can be powered either from a battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter. Hardware specifications, such as the speed and memory capacity.

Design elements, form factor, and construction can also vary significantly between models depending on intended use, as portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes.

The terms laptop and notebook are used interchangeably to describe a computer in English. Regardless of the etymology, by the late s, the terms were interchangeable, as the personal computer became feasible in , the idea of a portable personal computer soon followed.

As 8-bit CPU machines became widely accepted, the number of portables increased rapidly, the Osborne 1, released in , used the Zilog Z80 and weighed It had no battery, a 5 in CRT screen, in the same year the first laptop-sized portable computer, the Epson HX, was announced.

The Epson had an LCD screen, a battery. From onward, several new techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad, the pointing stick. Pseudonym — A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name.

Historically, they have taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones, actors, musicians, and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to mask their ethnic backgrounds.

A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, which is the name of another person and this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a front name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the s and s.

See also pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship, sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person.

This is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name, in many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a persons new legal name.

He then changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam, likewise some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames that had been in their families for generations.

Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, and dummy corporations to hide their identity, a pen name, or nom de plume, is a pseudonym adopted by an author.

In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used pen names. A pen name may be used if a real name is likely to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual.

Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use different pen names to avoid confusing their readers, in some cases, an author may become better known by his pen name than his real name.

Audio mixing — Audio mixing is the process by which multiple sounds are combined into one or more channels. In the process, a volume level, frequency content, dynamics. Also, effects such as reverberation and echo may be added and this practical, aesthetic, or otherwise creative treatment is done in order to produce a finished version that is appealing to listeners.

Audio mixing is practiced for music, film, television and live sound, the process is generally carried out by a mixing engineer operating a mixing console or digital audio workstation.

Before the introduction of recording, all the sounds and effects that were to be part of a recording were mixed together at one time during a live performance. If the sound blend was not satisfactory, or if one made a mistake.

Audio mixing for film and television is a process during the stage of a moving image program by which a multitude of recorded sounds are combined. In the process, the signal level, frequency content, dynamics and panoramic position are commonly manipulated.

The process takes place on a mix stage, typically in a studio or theater, normally the engineer will mix four main audio elements, speech, ambience, sound effects, and music.

Live sound mixing is the process of electrically blending together multiple sound sources at an event using a mixing console. Sounds used include those from instruments, voices, and pre-recorded material, individual sources may be equalised and routed to effect processors to ultimately be amplified and reproduced via loudspeakers.

The live sound engineer balances the various sources in a way that best suits the needs of the event. Beatmatching — The technique was developed to keep the people from leaving the dancefloor at the end of the song.

Beatmatching is no longer considered a novelty, and new digital software has made the technique easier to master. The beatmatching technique consists of the steps, While a record is playing, start a second record playing.

Use gain control on the mixer to match the levels of the two records, restart and slip-cue the new record at the right time, begin the new record on beat with the record currently playing.

Pay attention to structures, careful phrasing can make the mix seamless. Continue this process until the two records are in sync with each other and it can be difficult to sync the two records perfectly, so manual adjustment of the records is necessary to maintain the beat synchronization.

Before fading in the new track, check that the beats of two tracks match by listening to both channels together in the headphones, as the sound from the speakers can reach you with a delay.

Gradually fade in parts of the new track while fading out the old track, while in the mix, ensure that the tracks are still synchronized, adjusting the records if needed.

The fade can be repeated several times, for example, from the first track, fade to the track, then back to first. One of the key things to consider when beatmatching is the tempo of songs, and the musical theory behind the songs.

Attempting to beatmatch songs with completely different BPMs, will result in one or both of the songs sounding too fast or too slow. When beatmatching songs of similar BPMs it is important to consider the genre of each song, while most songs with the same BPM have similar beat structures, some genres will feature songs that wont mix well with others.

When beatmatching, a technique used by many disc jockeys around the world is to vary the equalization of both tracks. Doing so creates a transition that the audience would generally react to better.

However, some modern DJ software can change pitch and tempo independently using time-stretching and pitch-shifting, allowing harmonic mixing. There is also a feature in most modern DJ software to change the tempo but keeping the original pitch, beatmatching was invented by Francis Grasso in the late s and early s.

Initially he was counting the tempo with a metronome and looking for records with the same tempo. Fade audio engineering — In audio engineering, a fade is a gradual increase or decrease in the level of an audio signal.

The term can also be used for film cinematography or theatre lighting in much the same way, a recorded song may be gradually reduced to silence at its end, or may gradually increase from silence at the beginning.

Fading-out can serve as a solution for pieces of music that contain no obvious ending. Both fades and cross-fades are very valuable since they allow the engineer to quickly and easily make sure that the beginning and it is necessary that there is a clear section of silence prior to the audio.

A cross-fade can be manipulated through its rates and coefficients in order to create different styles of fading, almost every fade is different, this means that the fade parameters must be adjusted according to the individual needs of the mix.

Club DJs in house music and techno use DJ mixers, two or more sound sources along with a skill called beatmatching to make seamless dance mixes for dancers at raves, nightclubs, though relatively rare, songs can fade out then fade back in.

Esterhazy appears to have understood the message, allowing the musicians to leave, gustav Holsts Neptune, the mystic, part of the orchestral suite The Planets written between and , is another early example of music to have a fade-out ending during performance.

Until the imagination knew no difference between sound and silence, the technique of ending a spoken or musical recording by fading out the sound goes back to the earliest days of recording.

An rpm record called The Spirit of 76, a narrated musical vignette with martial fife-and-drum that gets louder as it nears the listener and quieter as it moves away, there are early examples that appear to bear no obvious relationship to movement.

By the early s longer songs were being put on both sides of records, with the fading out at the end of Side One. Records at the time only about two to five minutes of music per side.

The segue allowed for longer songs, symphonies and live concert recordings, however, shorter songs continued to use the fade-out for unclear reasons—for example, Fred Astaires movie theme Flying Down to Rio.

Even using fade-out as a segue device doesnt seem obvious, though we certainly take it for granted today and it is possible that movies were an influence here. Cue audio — To cue audio is to determine the desired initial playback point in a piece of recorded music.

It is technique used often used radio broadcasting and DJing, DJs typically find the desired start place on a record, tape, CD, or other medium by listening to the recording with headphones and manipulating the turntable or other playback controls.

DJs use headphones to cue up the point, this means that the audience cannot hear the playback until the DJ wants them to. Once the recording is cued up to the start point. The goal of cueing is to avoid dead air, that is, a subtype of cueing is slip cueing.

To slip cue a record, there has to be a felt mat under the record, the DJ finds the desired start point then leaves the stylus at the start point while holding the side of the record, with the turntable spinning.

The DJ can then release the record and the music will start immediately, some DJs mark parts of a record with stickers to make it easier to find parts of record tracks.

One dictionary definition is to Set a piece of audio or video equipment in readiness to play. Headphones — Headphones are a pair of small electronic or electric listening devices that are designed to be worn on or around the head over a users ears.

They are electroacoustic transducers, which convert a signal to a corresponding sound in the users ear. Headphones are designed to allow a user to listen to an audio source privately, in contrast to a loudspeaker.

Headphones are also known as earspeakers, earphones or, colloquially, circumaural and supra-aural headphones use a band over the top of the head to hold the speakers in place.

The other type, known as earbuds or earphones consist of units that plug into the users ear canal. In the context of telecommunication, a headset is a combination of headphone and microphone, the first headphones were developed in the late s for use by telephone operators, to keep their hands free.

Initially the audio quality was mediocre and a forward was the invention of high fidelity headphones. Headphones are made in a range of different audio reproduction quality capabilities, headsets designed for telephone use typically cannot reproduce sound with the high fidelity of expensive units designed for music listening by audiophiles.

Due to the spread of wireless devices in recent years headphones are used by people in public places such as sidewalks, grocery stores. The latter two types of employees use headphones with an integrated microphone, Headphones originated from the earpiece, and were the only way to listen to electrical audio signals before amplifiers were developed.

The first truly successful set was developed in by Nathaniel Baldwin, some very sensitive headphones, such as those manufactured by Brandes around , were commonly used for early radio work.

These early headphones used moving iron drivers, with either single ended or balanced armatures, the requirement for high sensitivity meant that no damping was used, thus the sound quality was crude.

These early models lacked padding, and often produced excessive clamping forces on the wearers head and their impedance varied, headphones used in telegraph and telephone work had an impedance of 75 ohms.

Those used with wireless radio had to be more sensitive and were made with more turns of finer wire. Impedance of to ohms was common, which suited both crystal sets and triode receivers, in early powered radios, the headphone was part of the vacuum tubes plate circuit and carried dangerous voltages.

It was normally connected directly to the high voltage battery terminal. The use of electrical connections meant that users could be shocked if they touched the bare headphone connections while adjusting an uncomfortable headset.

DJ controller — DJ controllers are devices used to help DJs mix music with DJ software using knobs, encoders, jog wheels, faders, backlit buttons, touch strips, and other components.

They are used to easier control of the software than the computer keyboard and touchpad on a laptop, or the touchscreen on tablet computers. DJ controllers do not mix audio signals like DJ mixers, rather, many DJ controllers also have a built in sound card with 4 output channels, which allows the DJ to preview music in headphones before playing it on the main output.

However, DJ controllers are much cheaper than two turntables or CDJs plus a mixer, unlike turntables, controllers can take advantage of the flexibility of computer software, for example, by allowing the DJ to store multiple cue points with music files.

Also, DJ software allows users to remap the components of controllers to perform different functions than the manufacturer intended. Some DJ controllers break from the conventional two jog wheels and a layout and are designed to be easily mapped however the user wants.

Some controllers are designed to be used either for live PA performances with such as Ableton Live or with DJ software. A few DJ controllers, most notably the Novation Dicers, are designed to be used with timecode vinyl, DJ controllers are usually designed to work with only one or a few DJ software programs endorsed by the manufacturer.

However, it may take considerable effort to get a controller to work with software it was not designed for, and some controls may not make sense with other software. Many manufacturers saw the success of the VCI and started selling their own similar devices, unlike the original VCI, some of those devices had integrated sound cards.

In , Native Instruments released the Traktor Kontrol S4, which used high resolution jog wheels, the Mk2 of the Kontrol S4, released in , uses standard HID signals rather than a proprietary protocol to communicate with the computer.

Microphone — A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. Several different types of microphone are in use, which employ different methods to convert the air pressure variations of a wave to an electrical signal.

Microphones typically need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced, in order to speak to larger groups of people, a need arose to increase the volume of the human voice.

The earliest devices used to achieve this were acoustic megaphones, some of the first examples, from fifth century BC Greece, were theater masks with horn-shaped mouth openings that acoustically amplified the voice of actors in amphitheatres.

In , the English physicist Robert Hooke was the first to experiment with an other than air with the invention of the lovers telephone made of stretched wire with a cup attached at each end.

German inventor Johann Philipp Reis designed an early sound transmitter that used a strip attached to a vibrating membrane that would produce intermittent current.

Better results were achieved with the transmitter design in Scottish-American Alexander Graham Bells telephone of — the diaphragm was attached to a conductive rod in an acid solution.

These systems, however, gave a poor sound quality. The first microphone that enabled proper voice telephony was the carbon microphone and this was independently developed by David Edward Hughes in England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the US.

Although Edison was awarded the first patent in mid, Hughes had demonstrated his working device in front of many witnesses some years earlier, the carbon microphone is the direct prototype of todays microphones and was critical in the development of telephony, broadcasting and the recording industries.

Thomas Edison refined the carbon microphone into his carbon-button transmitter of and this microphone was employed at the first ever radio broadcast, a performance at the New York Metropolitan Opera House in Wente of Western Electric developed the next breakthrough with the first condenser microphone, in , the first practical moving coil microphone was built.

The Marconi Skykes or magnetophon, developed by Captain H. Also in , the microphone was introduced, another electromagnetic type, believed to have been developed by Harry F. Over the years these microphones were developed by companies, most notably RCA that made large advancements in pattern control.

With television and film technology booming there was demand for high fidelity microphones, electro-Voice responded with their Academy Award-winning shotgun microphone in During the second half of 20th century development advanced quickly with the Shure Brothers bringing out the SM58, digital was pioneered by Milab in with the DM The latest research developments include the use of optics, lasers and interferometers.

Effects unit — An effects unit or pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters how a musical instrument or other audio source sounds. Musicians, audio engineers and record producers use effects units during live performances or in the studio, typically with electric guitar, electronic keyboard, while guitar effects are most frequently used with electric or electronic instruments, effects can also be used with acoustic instruments, drums and vocals.

Rackmounted or audio console-integrated reverb effects are used with vocals in live sound and sound recording. Examples of common units include wah-wah pedals, fuzzboxes and reverb units.

A stompbox or pedal is a metal or plastic box placed on the floor in front of the musician and connected to the instrument. Pedals are usually the least expensive format, a rackmount device mounts on a standard inch equipment rack and usually contains several types of effects.

A pedal-style unit may be called a box, stompbox. When a musician has multiple effects in a rack mounted road case, Effects units are available in a variety of formats or form factors.

Stompboxes are usually the smallest, least expensive, and most rugged effects units, rackmount devices are generally more expensive and offer a wider range of functions.

An effects unit can consist of analog or digital circuitry or a combination of the two, during a live performance, the effect is plugged into the electrical signal path of the instrument.

In the studio, the instrument or other sound-sources auxiliary output is patched into the effect, form factors are part of a studio or musicians outboard gear. Stompboxes are small plastic or metal chassis which usually lie on the floor or in a pedalboard to be operated by the users feet, pedals are often rectangle-shaped, but there are a range of other shapes.

Typical simple stompboxes have a single footswitch, one to three potentiometers for controlling the effect, and a single LED that indicates if the effect is on, depending on the type of pedal, the potentiometers may control different parameters of the effect.

For a chorus effect, for example, the knobs may control the depth, some pedals have two knobs stacked on top of each other, enabling the unit to provide two knobs per single knob space.

An effects chain or signal chain is formed by connecting two or more stompboxes, effect chains are typically created between the guitar and the amp or between the preamplifier and the power amp.

Reverberation — Reverberation, in psychoacoustics and acoustics, is the persistence of sound after a sound is produced. This is most noticeable when the sound source stops but the reflections continue, decreasing in amplitude, until they reach zero amplitude.

In comparison to an echo that is a minimum of 50 to ms after the initial sound. As time passes, the amplitude of the reflections is reduced until it is reduced to zero, Reverberation is not limited to indoor spaces as it exists in forests and other outdoor environments where reflection exists.

Reverberation occurs naturally when a person sings, talks or plays an instrument acoustically in a hall or performance space with sound-reflective surfaces. The sound of reverberation is often added to the vocals of singers in live sound systems.

The time it takes for a signal to drop by 60 dB is the reverberation time, RT60 is the time required for reflections of a direct sound to decay 60 dB. Reverberation time is stated as a single value, if measured as a wide band signal, however, being frequency dependent.

Being frequency dependent, the time measured in narrow bands will differ depending on the frequency band being measured. For precision, it is important to know what ranges of frequencies are being described by a time measurement.

In the late 19th century, Wallace Clement Sabine started experiments at Harvard University to investigate the impact of absorption on the reverberation time. Using a portable wind chest and organ pipes as a sound source and he found that the reverberation time is proportional to room dimensions and inversely proportional to the amount of absorption present.

The optimum reverberation time for a space in which music is played depends on the type of music that is to be played in the space, rooms used for speech typically need a shorter reverberation time so that speech can be understood more clearly.

If the reflected sound from one syllable is still heard when the syllable is spoken. Cat, Cab, and Cap may all sound very similar, if on the other hand the reverberation time is too short, tonal balance and loudness may suffer.

Reverberation effects are used in studios to add depth to sounds. Reverberation changes the perceived spectral structure of a sound, but does not alter the pitch, basic factors that affect a rooms reverberation time include the size and shape of the enclosure as well as the materials used in the construction of the room.

Every object placed within the enclosure can also affect this time, including people. Electronic musical instrument — An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics.

Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical signal that ultimately drives a loudspeaker. An electronic instrument might include a user interface for controlling its sound, often by adjusting the pitch, frequency, all electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications.

Simple electronic musical instruments are called sound effects, the border between sound effects and actual musical instruments is often hazy. Electronic musical instruments are now used in most styles of music.

Development of new musical instruments, controllers, and synthesizers continues to be a highly active. In the 18th-century, musicians and composers adapted a number of instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity.

The former instrument consisted of an instrument of over strings. The latter was an instrument with plectra activated electrically. However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source, the first electric synthesizer was invented in by Elisha Gray.

The Musical Telegraph used steel reeds oscillated by electromagnets and transmitted over a telephone line, Gray also built a simple loudspeaker device into later models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field.

A significant invention, which later had an effect on electronic music, was the audion in This was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube and which led to the generation and amplification of signals, radio broadcasting.

It has been used in many Russian movies—like Solaris—to produce unusual, Hugh Le Caine, John Hanert, Raymond Scott, composer Percy Grainger, and others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late s and s.

In Daphne Oram produced a method of synthesis, her Oramics technique, driven by drawings on a 35 mm film strip. In Thaddeus Cahill patented an instrument called the Telharmonium, using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level.

This technology was used to design the Hammond organ. Drum machine — A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums, cymbals, other percussion instruments, and often basslines.

Drum machines are most commonly associated with electronic music such as house music. They are usually used when session drummers are not available or if the production cannot afford the cost of a drummer.

Also, many modern drum machines can also produce sounds, as well as allowing the user to compose unique drum beats. In the s, most modern machines are sequencers with a sample playback or synthesizer component that specializes in the reproduction of drum timbres.

The invention could produce sixteen different rhythms, each associated with a pitch, either individually or in any combination, including en masse. Received with considerable interest when it was introduced in The next generation of rhythm machines played only pre-programmed rhythms such as mambo, tango, Chamberlin Rhythmate In Californian Harry Chamberlin constructed a tape loop-based drum machine called the Chamberlin Rhythmate.

It had 14 tape loops with a head that allowed playback of different tracks on each piece of tape. It contained a volume and a control and also had a separate amplifier with bass, treble, and volume controls.

The tape loops were of real acoustic jazz drum kits playing different style beats, with additions to tracks such as bongos, clave, castanets. The Side Man was intended as an accompaniment for the Wurlitzer organ range.

The Side Man offered a choice of 12 electronically generated, predefined rhythm patterns with variable tempos, the sound source was a series of vacuum tubes which created 10 preset electronic drum sounds.

Combinations of these different sets of rhythms and drum sounds created popular rhythmic patterns of the day, e. The tempo of the patterns was controlled by a slider that increased the speed of rotation of the wiper arm, the Side Man had a panel of 10 buttons for manually triggering drum sounds, and a remote player to control the machine while playing from an organ keyboard.

The Side Man was housed in a cabinet that contained the sound-generating circuitry. Raymond Scott In , Raymond Scott constructed the Rhythm Synthesizer and, in , scotts machines were used for recording his album Soothing Sounds for Baby series.

Synthesizer — A synthesizer is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.

Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano, Hammond organ, flute, vocals, natural sounds like ocean waves, etc. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals, synthesizers were first used in pop music in the s.

In the s, synths were used in disco, especially in the late s, in the s, the invention of the relatively inexpensive, mass market Yamaha DX7 synth made synthesizers widely available. In the s, synthesizers are used in genres of pop, rock.

Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer, the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments.

One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the telegraph, was invented in by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray. He accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit and this musical telegraph used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line.

Gray also built a simple loudspeaker device into later models, consisting of a diaphragm in a magnetic field. This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy, though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer.

In , Thaddeus Cahill invented the Teleharmonium, which used dynamos, and was capable of additive synthesis like the Hammond organ, however, Cahills business was unsuccessful for various reasons, and similar but more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs.

In , American engineer, Lee De Forest ushered in the electronics age and he invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, called the Audion tube. This led to new entertainment technologies, including radio and sound films, ondes Martenot and Trautonium were continuously developed for several decades, finally developing qualities similar to later synthesizers.

In the s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, in , USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics.

The earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in Germany and the United States, during the three years that Hammond manufactured this model,1, units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II.

Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. USB flash drive — USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, and physically much smaller than an optical disc.

Most weigh less than 30 grams, since first appearing on the market in late , as with virtually all computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped. As of March , flash drives with anywhere from 8 to GB are frequently sold, storage capacities as large as 2 TB are planned, with steady improvements in size and price per capacity expected.

USB flash drives are used for the same purposes for which floppy disks or CDs were once used, i. They are smaller, faster, have thousands of times more capacity, additionally, they are immune to electromagnetic interference, and are unharmed by surface scratches.

The USB connector may be protected by a cap or by retracting into the body of the drive. Some devices combine the functionality of a media player with USB flash storage.

Pua hails from Sekinchan, Selangor, Malaysia, pua founded Phison Electronics based in Taiwan with four other partners and is believed to have produced the worlds first USB flash drive with system-on-chip technology.

That is considerably slower than what a hard drive or solid-state drive can achieve when connected via the SATA interface. Transfer rates may be given in megabytes per second, megabits per second, or in optical drive multipliers such as X.

The effective transfer rate of a device is significantly affected by the access pattern, for example. Internet radio — Internet radio is an audio service transmitted via the Internet.

Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means, Internet radio is also distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming.

Internet radio services offer news, sports, talk, and various genres of music—every format that is available on traditional broadcast radio stations and this has made internet radio particularly suited to and popular among expatriate listeners.

Internet radio is also suited to listeners with special interests that are not adequately served by local radio stations. Internet radio is listened to on a standard home PC or similar device.

In recent years, dedicated devices that resemble and offer the listener a similar experience to a radio receiver have arrived on the market. Streaming technology is used to distribute Internet radio, typically using an audio codec.

The delay is called lag, and is introduced at several stages of audio broadcasting. A local tuner simulation program includes all the radios that can also be heard in the air in the city. More people listen to online radio than to satellite radio, high-definition radio, podcasts, an April Arbitron survey showed that, in the US, more than one in seven persons aged 25—54 years old listen to online radio each week.

In ,13 percent of the American population listened to the radio online, Internet radio functionality is also built into many dedicated Internet radio devices, which give an FM like receiver user experience.

Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, while often used to refer solely to rapping, hip hop more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. Hip hops early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable.

Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat.

The Sugarhill Gangs song Rappers Delight is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain popularity in the mainstream. The s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles, prior to the s, hip hop music was largely confined within the United States.

However, during the s, it began to spread to scenes in dozens of countries. New school hip hop was the wave of hip hop music, originating in —84 with the early records of Run-D.

The Golden age hip hop period was a period between the mids and the early s. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles, in the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the s.

In the s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap, at the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being Neo soul and nu metal.

Hip hop became a pop music genre in the mids. The popularity of hip hop music continued through the s, with hip hop influences also increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop, the United States also saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.

Starting in , sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane, during the mids, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West.

Creation of the hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash. Cowboy later worked the hip hop cadence into a part of his stage performance, the first use of the term in print was in The Village Voice, by Steven Hager, later author of a history of hip hop.

Bassline — It is also used sometimes in classical music. In solo music for piano and pipe organ, these instruments have an excellent lower register that can be used to play a deep bassline, on organs, the bass line is typically played using the pedal keyboard and massive 16 and 32 bass pipes.

Basslines in popular music often use riffs or grooves, which are simple, appealing musical motifs or phrases that are repeated, with variation. The bass differs from other voices because of the role it plays in supporting and defining harmonic motion.

It does so at levels ranging from immediate, chord-by-chord events to the harmonic organization of a entire work. Bassline riffs usually emphasize the chord tones of each chord, which helps to define a songs key, at the same time, basslines work along with the drum part and the other rhythm instruments to create a clear rhythmic pulse.

The type of rhythmic pulse used in basslines varies widely in different types of music, in swing jazz and jump blues, basslines are often created from a continuous sequence of quarter notes in a mostly scalar, stepwise part called a walking bass line.

In Latin, salsa music, jazz fusion, reggae, electronica, in bluegrass and traditional country music, basslines often emphasize the root and fifth of each chord. In classical music such as string quartets and symphonies, basslines play the same harmonic and rhythmic role, however, most popular musical ensembles include an instrument capable of playing bass notes.

In the s, a tuba was often used, from the s to the s, most popular music groups used the double bass as the bass instrument. Starting in the s, the bass guitar began to replace the bass in most types of popular music, such as rock and roll, blues.

By the s and s, the bass was used in most rock bands. The double bass was used in some types of popular music that recreated styles from the s and s such as jazz, traditional s blues, jump blues, country.

In some popular bands, keyboard instruments are used to play the bass line. In organ trios, for example, a Hammond organ player performs the basslines using the pedal keyboard. In some types of music, such as hip-hop or house music.

Basslines are especially important in many forms of dance and electronic music, such as electro, drum and bass, dubstep, and most forms of house and trance. Sampling music — In music, sampling is the act of taking a portion, or sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or a sound recording in a different song or piece.

Hip hop music was the first popular music based on the art of sampling — being born from s DJs who experimented with manipulating vinyl on two turntables and an audio mixer.

Historically, sampling was most often done with a sampler — a specialized piece of hardware — but today, however, vinyl emulation software may also be used, and turntablists continue to sample using traditional methods.

Often samples consist of one part of a song, such as a rhythm break, for instance, hip hop music developed from DJs looping the breaks from songs to enable continuous dancing.

Samples can also consist of words and phrases, including those in non-musical media such as movies, TV shows. Sampling does not necessarily mean using pre-existing recordings, a number of composers and musicians have constructed pieces or songs by sampling field recordings they made themselves, and others have sampled their own original recordings.

The use of sampling is controversial legally and musically, in the s, when hip hop was confined to local dance parties, it was unnecessary to obtain copyright clearance in order to sample recorded music at these parties.

Aside from legal issues, sampling has been championed and criticized. Hip-hop DJs today take different approaches to sampling, with critical of its obvious use. Some critics, particularly those with a rockist outlook, have expressed the belief all sampling is lacking in creativity, while others say sampling has been innovative and revolutionary.

Those whose own work has been sampled have also voiced a variety of opinions about the practice. Once recorded, samples can be edited, played back, or looped, types of samples include, The drums and percussion parts of many modern recordings are really a variety of short samples of beats strung together.

Many libraries of such beats exist and are licensed so that the user incorporating the samples can distribute their recording without paying royalties, such libraries can be loaded into samplers. Though percussion is an application of looping, many kinds of samples can be looped.

A piece of music may have an ostinato which is created by sampling a phrase played on any kind of instrument, there is software which specializes in creating loops. Whereas loops are usually a phrase played on a musical instrument, Music workstations and samplers use samples of musical instruments as the basis of their own sounds, and are capable of playing a sample back at any pitch.

Many modern synthesizers and drum machines also use samples as the basis of their sounds, most such samples are created in professional recording studios using world-class instruments played by accomplished musicians.

Rapping — The components of rapping include content, flow, and delivery. Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that rap is performed in time to a beat. Rapping is often associated with and an ingredient of hip-hop music.

Rapping is also used in Kwaito music, a genre originated in Johannesburg, South Africa. Another form of rap that predates hip hop was boxer Muhammad Alis rhythmic poetry used to taunt his opponents in the s and s, rapping can be delivered over a beat, typically provided by a DJ, turntablist or Beatboxer, or without accompaniment.

Stylistically, rap occupies an area between speech, prose, poetry, and singing. The word, as used to describe quick speech or repartee, the word had been used in British English since the 16th century.

It was part of the African American dialect of English in the s meaning to converse, today, the terms rap and rapping are so closely associated with hip-hop music that many writers use the terms interchangeably.

The English verb rap has various meanings, such as to strike, especially with a quick, smart, or light blow, as well to utter sharply or vigorously, to rap out a command.

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary gives a date of for the first recorded use of the word with the meaning to utter sharply, vigorously and it is these meanings from which the musical form of rapping derives, and this definition may be from a shortening of repartee.

A rapper refers to a performer who raps, by the late s, when Hubert G. Brown changed his name to H. Del the Funky Homosapien similarly states that rap was used to refer to talking in a manner in the early s.

Back then what rapping meant, basically, was you trying to convey something—youre trying to convince somebody, thats what rapping is, its in the way you talk. Rapping can be traced back to its African roots, centuries before hip-hop music existed, the griots of West Africa were delivering stories rhythmically, over drums and sparse instrumentation.

Such connections have been acknowledged by modern artists, modern day griots, spoken word artists, mainstream news sources. A notable recorded example of rapping in blues music was the song Gotta Let You Go by Joe Hill Louis, not just jazz music and lyrics but also jazz poetry.

In the early seasons, the two characters always greeted each other with their signature handshake, a recurring joke throughout the shows run involved the character being physically ejected from the house by Uncle Phil, using the same footage for comedic effect.

Even though he separated from Will Smith as a partner, they are still friends. Some songs by Smith were produced by Townes, and he has performed on songs by Smith such as So Fresh.

In addition, he appeared in several of Smiths music videos such as Will2K, on some occasions, he made appearances with Smith at live concerts, producing DJ scratches.

In , he appeared with Rhymefest in a directed by Konee Rok.