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Dr web 7 0 1 09060 final

Dr web 7 0 1 09060 final

Dr web 7 0 1 09060 final

Dr web 7 0 1 09060 final

Dr web 7 0 1 09060 final

14.01.2018 – It helps prevent infection even from malicious sites that have not yet been added to the Dr. Figure 1 Food and beverage recalls by year see online version for colours. J Psychiatry

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Dr web 7 0 1 09060 final

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2. 1 Integration, Supply chain agility, Supply chain Network design, etc.http://softik.org/zte-speed-remove-battery/ http://softik.org/zte-speed-rom/Additionally I am exploring the possible prognostic value in SUD recovery and relapse. For example, less than 1.

3. 5 A backwards sele ction proced. Too much pressur e to ru sh design s. http://softik.org/2gisshell3-5-5-12gisdata-krasnodar23-0-0-7/The role of premedical and medical

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4. 1 University, Manipal -Karnataka, India.Dr web 7 0 1 09060 finalThe results suggest that the odds of choosing.

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For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser. Why medical students choose psychiatry – a 20 country cross-sectional survey.

Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice.

Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry.

We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome.

During medical school, experience of psychiatric enrichment activities special studies modules and university psychiatry clubsexperience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry.

Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: We report factors relevant to medical student selection and psychiatry teaching which affect career choice.

Addressing these factors improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical.

The main outcome measure. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of. We report factors relevant to medical student selection and psychiatry teaching which affect career.

Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally. Full list of author information is available at the end of the article. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative.

Commons Attribution License http: BMC Medical Education Psychiatry is facing a shortage of specialistssometimes. There is also a marked. The World P sychiatric Asso ciation.

WPA included recruitment to psychiat ry as a major. There is a wide. For example with over 24, medical graduates. Reasons for low recruitment levels are varied. The vast majority of literature identified.

These studies have examined. Potential psychiatrists may decide on a career in. The summary of factors already identi. Our literature search to identify these. It is useful to unders tand what facto rs play a.

In this study we focused on medical students because. This group may also be influenced by factors which. To report on career plans of final year medical student s. Table 1 Published associations with choice of psychiatry as a career.

Gender More women students than men choose psychiatry. Influences on choosing medicine Personal or family experience of mental illness is more common. Pre-medical school qualifications Students are no more likely to have previous degree, but, if they do, are more likely to have an arts or.

School leaving qualifications Students are more likely to have studied arts or humanities at school. Pre-medical school career choice Interest in psychiatry prior to medical school is maintained in the final year.

Quality of teaching Positive correlation between teaching placement quality and ATP score. Teaching exposure Positive correlation between the number of teaching exposures and ATP, and likelihood of choosing.

Enrichment activities Exposure to enrichment activities special study modules, electives and university psychiatry clubs increase s. Stage of exposure Early or late clinical exposure 09060 medical school makes no difference.

Duration of exposure Positive correlation between placement length and likelihood of choosing psychiatry. Setting of exposure Experience of outpatient or specialist services increases choice of psychiatry than inpatient services.

Types of patients seen Experience of people in recovery or people seeking help are more likely to choose psychiatry. 09060 during placement Positive correlation between higher levels of responsibility for patient care and likelihood of choosing.

Psychiatry is seen as having better job prospects, more flexibility, higher burnout and lower prestige. Personality traits Those choosing psychiatry will score higher on measures of neuroticism and openness compared to those.

The null hypothesis wa s. This study used a quantitative cross-se ctional design. Using an existing network of early career psychiatrists. The wh ole population of fi nal year students.

We developed an online questionnaire which inc luded. We included th e A TP. English Big 5 Mini-M arkers scale [30 ] which have been. The questionnaire was piloted in the UK in November. The study was performed in different countries.

Where the local language was considered by loca l in. The exceptions were Japan. Reminders were sent out at 4 and 8 weeks, and a. Ethical approval, web required, was obtained in ea ch.

In the UK this was granted. To achieve a threefold differ ence. To detect this level of dif. It was or iginally envisaged. However the response rate. Categorical variables were summarised web the number.

Table 2 Enrichment activities and relation to likelihood of. Factor Cate gory Unlike ly. Statistical analyses were performed using the program. The primary analysis examined factors associated with.

This variable was originally measured on a 5-point. Likert scale no way, unlikely, possible, seriously con. For the purposes of analysisthis. It was not considered ap.

Firstly this would assume equal. Se condly if it was. This is not the ca se here as the values are. The association between categorical variab les and this. An additional anal ysis examine d the association be.

Personalit y traits were examined us ing the Internati onal. English Mini-M arkers scale, with pe rmission from th e au. A final of 1 — 3 was attr ibuted to. The sc oring of persona lity.

The tota l score for final trai t was calculatedgiving. A higher value implied th at the. Difference s in personality tr ait scores betwee n students. We considered caref ully whether to correct f or multiple.

We conclud ed that it was not necessary to empl oy. It was predicted that responses from students in the.

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Supplier quality plays equally important role in product recall as. Kawasaki engine in the utility vehicle may not have. Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, Address: There is also a marked. Lastly, th is counter. However, those students exposed to acutely unwell pa. The association between categorical variab les and this.

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Influences on choosing medicine Personal or family experience of mental illness is more common. Pre-medical school qualifications Students are no more likely to have previous degree, but, if they do, are more likely to have an arts or.

School leaving qualifications Students are more likely to have studied arts or humanities at school. Pre-medical school career choice Interest in psychiatry prior to medical school is maintained in the final year.

Quality of teaching Positive correlation between teaching placement quality and ATP score. Teaching exposure Positive correlation between the number of teaching exposures and ATP, and likelihood of choosing.

Enrichment activities Exposure to enrichment activities special study modules, electives and university psychiatry clubs increase s. Stage of exposure Early or late clinical exposure during medical school makes no difference.

Duration of exposure Positive correlation between placement length and likelihood of choosing psychiatry. Setting of exposure Experience of outpatient or specialist services increases choice of psychiatry than inpatient services.

Types of patients seen Experience of people in recovery or people seeking help are more likely to choose psychiatry. Responsibility during placement Positive correlation between higher levels of responsibility for patient care and likelihood of choosing.

Psychiatry is seen as having better job prospects, more flexibility, higher burnout and lower prestige. Personality traits Those choosing psychiatry will score higher on measures of neuroticism and openness compared to those.

The null hypothesis wa s. This study used a quantitative cross-se ctional design. Using an existing network of early career psychiatrists,. The wh ole population of fi nal year students. We developed an online questionnaire which inc luded.

We included th e A TP-. English Big 5 Mini-M arkers scale [30 ] which have been. The questionnaire was piloted in the UK in November. The study was performed in different countries.

Where the local language was considered by loca l in-. The exceptions were Japan. Reminders were sent out at 4 and 8 weeks, and a. Ethical approval, where required, was obtained in ea ch.

In the UK this was granted. To achieve a threefold differ ence. To detect this level of dif-. It was or iginally envisaged. However the response rate. Categorical variables were summarised by the number.

Table 2 Enrichment activities and relation to likelihood of. Factor Cate gory Unlike ly. Statistical analyses were performed using the program. The primary analysis examined factors associated with.

This variable was originally measured on a 5-point. Likert scale no way, unlikely, possible, seriously con-. For the purposes of analysis , this. It was not considered ap-. Firstly this would assume equal.

Se condly if it was. This is not the ca se here as the values are. The association between categorical variab les and this. An additional anal ysis examine d the association be-.

Personalit y traits were examined us ing the Internati onal. English Mini-M arkers scale, with pe rmission from th e au-. A score of 1 — 3 was attr ibuted to. The sc oring of persona lity. The tota l score for each trai t was calculated , giving.

A higher value implied th at the. Difference s in personality tr ait scores betwee n students. We considered caref ully whether to correct f or multiple.

We conclud ed that it was not necessary to empl oy. It was predicted that responses from students in the. To allow for this data. The original an alysis examine d the effect of a large.

Initially th e ATP score was omitted from the analys is,. The inclusi on of this variable woul d. Table 3 Medical school clinical exposure factors and. How ever , subseque ntly the effec t of this variabl e.

A total of students from 46 medical schools in T anzania to over Germany. The spread of coun-. Respondents had a mean age of 24 years. Asian and African countries had a higher percentage of.

Canada had a higher proportion of women responding. The primary analysis examined the likelihood of partici-. A summary of the pro-. The overa ll results sugges ted. The variation in perc entage of med-.

Interestingly there was a higher likelihood of choosing. No students in T anzania. Pre-medical school factors associated with choosing. The first set of analys es examined the asso ciation betwee n.

Women were more likel y to choose psychiatry. There were no di ffer-. Four factors that in fluenced the. Table 4 Country response rates, demographics, and likelihood of choosing psychiatry.

Preference of speciality when entering medical scho ol. Medical school factors associated with Choosing. Teaching methods, student ratings, and enrichment.

T able 2 illustrates the impact of teaching methods and. Students who had exposure to psychiatry le ctures. Interestingly, those who were taught psychology were. The majority of clinical exposure factors were not asso-.

However, those students exposed to acutely unwell pa-. Not surprisingly students with a positive attit ude score. The association between ATP score and two other fac-. Interestingly there was no association between self-rated.

Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the. A backwards sele ction proced-. This final regression model is based on This gives the odds of being likely to. Six factors were found to be associated with students.

Those who gave more weight to their own vocation. Figure 2 Variation in percentage of medical students seriously. Table 5 Rating of psychiatry relative to other fields, ATP-. Factor Categ ory Unlike ly to.

Experience of a psychiatry special module made choice. A university psychiatry club with. The odds of choosing psychiatry dropped to almost. The results suggest that the odds of choosing.

This study set out to report on the career plans of final. The main strengths of the study are the large multi-. It is the first international. The main limitation is the relatively low response rates.

This might be explained by a num-. Conversely, the higher than expected endorsemen t of a. Differ ent methods of admini s-. In the intere sts of developing a qu estionna ire sufficien tly. These i ncluded cultu ral, lingui stic, religiou s and other.

ATP data was missing in three countries due to an. The cross se c-. The lack of data from countries like. The intention was to reme dy this in. Lastly, we did not correct for multiple testing because.

Quality of psychiatric placement 0. Table 7 Personality traits and likelihood of choosing. Table 8 Logistical regression factors in choosing a. Variable Category Odds ratio.

Impo rtan t infl uen ce 3. Our finding that 4. Our survey was timed in the se cond half of. Previous research on deci-. Estimates of the percentage of students who consider.

The overa ll trend was for Europe an. Interesting ly, Iraq has. Funding and provi sion of mental heal th care in African. As mentioned above, funding, quality and availability.

Even if adequate numbers of. For example, less than 1. UK are for psychiatry and competition ratios are nearly. The popularity of psychiatry in our study wa s greater for.

Flexible working patterns and role models may. Our data did not confirm. There was a significant difference for stron g internal. There may also be an impac t of societal stigma, as those. Assessm ent of personal moti vation for the career.

Stigma, both cultural, personal and professio nal may. This may in turn influence career choice be-. Furtherm ore, a recent. More detail on the crucial area of stigma is beyond the. The interested reader is referred to a.

This group of early-deciders made. This is a lower figure than the. Furthermore, reducing professional stigma both. Our data on attitudes from the ATP was in line with.

This may reflect th at fact that this was the comm onest. St udents who were expose d to problem. It may also be that clinical expo sure is. It is also poss ible that the di -. Lastly, th is counter-.

Specific activi ties such as resear ch and special stud y mod-. Electiv es and universi ty psychiatry soci eties were. Length and setting of clerkship made no difference to.

It is poss ible tha t the curre nt gener ation of s tudents h ave. It is possible that those already in-. The associatio n between the level of re sponsibili ty given.

There ar e local pro-. Overall, our find ings are encoura ging in that intern ation-. It is this group that is ar-. Our study has shown. Further studies are also need ed in different countries to.

The authors declare no competing financial or non financial interests. All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at www. The article was drafted by GL and. All authors contributed to the submitted article.

The guarantor is DB. In the UK ethical approval was granted by the ethics panels at. An independent statistician, PB, was. All authors read and. We thank all respondents for their time. We thank Mr Paul Bassett, who.

The WPA had no influence on study. All authors had full access to all of the data including statistical. The data has been presented to the WPA Board and recommendations.

Box , Addis Ababa. Box — Eldoret,. Gad Kilonzo Professor of Psychiatry, Muhimbili. Box , Dar es. In this paper, major recalls over a period of 20 years were. After Pareto analysis most. Based on the above results authors.

Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Intelligent Enterprise , Vol. Ashwini Sharma is affiliated with Department of. His research interest includes industrial engineering, supply chain quality.

Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India. His research interest includes. Ashish Agarwal is affiliated with Mech anical Engineering at the School of. His research interest includes industrial.

The products are sometimes the matter of great concern when the quality. With reference to recent produc t recalls the product safety has bec ome the. A re call may be triggered by manufact urers, distributors or.

For exam ple, a manufacturer. The recall may be for replacement, repa ir and correction, or retirement of the. Clearly, a business will be hit hard when a food or beverage product is.

The direct h it will include on average a full qua rter of profits for the recalled. This is in addition to the recalled product va lue Gunther, The recalls have spread over a broad spectrum from food, pharmaceutical, autom otive,.

Lack of an official recall pol icy in India in. In April last year, Maruti. Suzuki recalled 13, Swift, Ritz diesel models to inspect, fix engine defects, precede d. In September last year,.

Honda again recalled 72, units of the City to repl ace defective power window. Toyota Kirloskar had also an nounced recall of 41, units of it s Etios and. Liva models to replace a faulty inlet pipe to the fuel tank.

The largest-ever recall in. India probably was for the one lakh plus unit s of the A-Star in February , the only. In the quest for competitive advantage, or ganisations, consultants, practitione rs and.

The areas of Supply chain wh ich has been researched predominantly. Integration, Supply chain agility, Supply chain Network design, etc. As a result, it has. Robinson and Malhotra Empirical quality management research has evolved over the last 20 years.

Numerous studies have investigated th e relationships among quality management. As competition moves beyond a single firm into the supply network of multi firms, focus.

Integrating quality management and supply chain management will be important for. Quality assurance in supply chain management related to different kinds of goods and. Petroni , and Sroufe and Curkovic in order to align the supp ly chain with.

Foster defined supply chain quality management SCQM to operationalise. Reviewed cu rrent research in quality management and. Key quality management content. HR practices, business results, and safety.

Based on these vari ables he proposed areas for. Kaynak and Hartley found that the inclusion. They also found out its releva nce to academic and industrial practice and. Samsung, where they found that the effort and investment in synthesising SCM and Si x.

The Black Belt programme has pr oduced highly. A series of high profile product recalls in recent years has sh aken public confidence. In the past, product failures were often. Toda y, a single product safety problem can.

The effects of this recall were felt not only in the USA, but also around the world in. For a wide range of products from food and drugs to consumer product s, medical devices.

The unclea r information of product quality risk across. Considering the literature above the product recall issue had rarely been investigated. The gravity of the issu e is.

A very good example of it is 46 million batteries of Nokia. November were recalled because of over heating problem by Nokia replacing the. It may be an interesting point for the.

Som e of the. Figure 1 Food and beverage recalls by year see online version for colours. Another example in line is how two Iowa farms managed to produce the largest egg. The bigger picture, howe ver, is that every year 76 million Americans.

According to the Centres for Disease Control and. Prevention, more than , are hospitalised and 5, die Gunther, After reviewing the literature it has been found out that there are very few studies.

Therefore it is hig hly. The quality requirements from the. Outcome of the study. The product recalls happened over the year s in different industry segments are. Further, as per the definitions above considering that any deviation in.

The key factors responsible for a product recall are manufacturer, Supplier, Design and. These key factors are taken from the Appe ndix which is the survey of recalls by.

Figure 2 Cause and effect diagram for product recall. Table 1 Causes of recall. A Vendor quality Manufacturer. B Lack of coordination of producti on feasibility before rele ase for.

C Too much pressure to rush designs through short cuts are taken Design. D Lack of coordination between de sign and other departments,. F Insufficient training Skill.

H Demand management Supplier. I Inadequate specifications for the testing of materials or components. The recalls are many and selected few are take n as represe ntation of the industry segment.

The indust ry segments ranges. The above nine variables are ge neralised as causes on the basis of cause and effect. Further a pairwise comparison of ab ove causes analysed by analytic hierarchy.

Pareto chart gives a good measure of strong signal a bout which cause is more dominant. AHP analysis is carried out by pairwise co mparison of different parameters in o rder to.

The consistency ratio was found. Table 3 Pareto analysis and reveals the following results:. From Table 3 this parameter found to be the m ost important. It gives an impre ssion that in order to attract the custom er.

The above case may also be endorsed by the recent recall of 1. The pressure on design team to come up. The safety analysis of the product amounts to be Flawed design may be overcom e by safety analysis of product b ut if safety.

The recalls happened in the food as well as toy industry is a. Supplier quality plays equally important role in product recall as. In Pa reto analysis as shown in Figure 3 the. It suggests that the product.

Vendor quality can be very well improved by. This factor accounts to be The coordination issue may result in to a potential recall if not taken care. Largely reliability of product depends.

The best practices have their own importance which keeps the. These best practices are the thumb rules which.