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Dr web 7 0 1 2060 final rg soft

Dr web 7 0 1 2060 final rg soft

Dr web 7 0 1 2060 final rg soft

Dr web 7 0 1 2060 final rg soft

Dr web 7 0 1 2060 final rg soft

24.01.2018 – Archived from the original on March 17, Subjects would be excluded from the study if they had current voice problems and voice problem more than once a month over the past year.

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4. 9 Vibration Analysis and Diagnostic Guide. Regulation of transforming growth factor-b1 by nitric oxide.Dr web 7 0 1 2060 final rg softThe rules governing the behavior of agents should ideally be well-vetted, simple rules. Positive move value means move toward 3:

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Although not the first space telescopeHubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. Hubble’s orbit outside the distortion of Earth’s atmosphere allows it to take extremely high-resolution images, with substantially lower background light than ground-based telescopes.

Hubble has recorded some of the most detailed visible light images ever, allowing a deep view into space and time. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysicssuch as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe.

Space telescopes were proposed as early as Hubble was funded in the s, with a proposed launch inbut the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, and the Challenger disaster When finally launched inHubble’s main mirror was found to have been ground incorrectly, compromising the telescope’s capabilities.

The optics were corrected to their intended quality by a servicing mission in Hubble is the only telescope designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. After launch by Space Shuttle Discovery infive subsequent Space Shuttle missions repaired, upgraded, and replaced systems on the telescope, including all five of the main instruments.

The fifth mission was initially canceled on safety grounds following the Columbia disaster However, after spirited public discussion, NASA administrator Mike Griffin approved the fifth servicing missioncompleted in The telescope is operating as of [update]and could last until — InHermann Oberth —considered a father of modern rocketry, along with Robert H.

The history of the Hubble Space Telescope can be traced back as far asto the astronomer Lyman Spitzer ‘s paper “Astronomical advantages of an extraterrestrial observatory”. First, the angular resolution the smallest separation at which objects can be clearly distinguished would be limited only by diffractionrather than by the turbulence in the atmosphere, which causes stars to twinkle, known to astronomers as seeing.

At that time ground-based telescopes were limited to resolutions of 0. Second, a space-based telescope could observe infrared and ultraviolet light, which are strongly absorbed by the atmosphere.

Spitzer devoted much of his career to pushing for the development of a space telescope. Ina report by the US National Academy of Sciences recommended the development of a space telescope as part of the space programand in Spitzer was appointed as head of a committee given the task of defining scientific objectives for a large space telescope.

Space-based astronomy had begun on a very small scale following World War IIas scientists made use of developments that had taken place in rocket technology. OAO-1’s battery failed after three days, terminating the mission.

It was followed by OAO-2which carried out ultraviolet observations of stars and galaxies from its launch in untilwell beyond its original planned lifetime of one year. These plans emphasized the need for manned maintenance missions to the telescope to ensure such a costly program had a lengthy working life, and the concurrent development of plans for the reusable space shuttle indicated that the technology to allow this was soon to become available.

The continuing success of the OAO program encouraged increasingly strong consensus within the astronomical community that the LST should be a major goal. InNASA established two committees, one to plan the engineering side of the space telescope project, and the other to determine the scientific goals of the mission.

Once these had been established, the next hurdle for NASA was to obtain funding for the instrument, which would be far more costly than any Earth-based telescope. Congress questioned many aspects of the proposed budget for the telescope and forced cuts in the budget for the planning stages, which at the time consisted of very detailed studies of potential instruments and hardware for the telescope.

Inpublic spending cuts led to Congress deleting all funding for the telescope project. In response to this, a nationwide lobbying effort was coordinated among astronomers. Many astronomers met congressmen and senators in person, web large scale letter-writing campaigns were organized.

The National Academy of Sciences published a report emphasizing the need for a space telescope, and eventually the Senate agreed to half of the budget that had originally been approved by Congress.

A proposed precursor 1. Once the Space Telescope project had been given the go-ahead, work on the program was divided among many institutions. Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC was given responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the telescope, while Goddard Space Flight Center was given overall control of the scientific instruments and ground-control center for the mission.

Lockheed was commissioned to construct and integrate the spacecraft in which the telescope would be housed. This design, with two hyperbolic mirrors, is known soft good imaging performance over a wide field of view, with the disadvantage that the mirrors have shapes that are hard to fabricate and test.

The mirror and optical systems of the telescope determine the final performance, and they were designed to exacting specifications. Optical telescopes typically have mirrors polished to an accuracy of about a tenth of the wavelength of visible lightbut the Space Telescope was to be used for observations from the visible through the ultraviolet shorter wavelengths and was specified to be diffraction limited to take full advantage of the space environment.

Therefore, its mirror needed to be polished to an accuracy of 10 nanometers 0. This limits Hubble’s performance as an infrared telescope. Perkin-Elmer intended to use custom-built and extremely sophisticated final polishing machines to grind the mirror to the required shape.

Their bid called for the two companies to double-check each other’s work, which would have almost certainly caught the polishing error that later caused such problems. Construction of the Perkin-Elmer mirror began instarting with a blank manufactured by Corning from their ultra-low expansion glass.

Perkin-Elmer simulated microgravity by supporting the mirror from the back with rods that exerted varying amounts of force. Mirror polishing continued until May NASA reports at the time questioned Perkin-Elmer’s managerial structure, and the polishing began to slip behind schedule and over budget.

To save money, NASA final work on the back-up mirror and put the launch date of the telescope back to October Doubts continued to be expressed about Perkin-Elmer’s competence on a project of this importance, as their budget and timescale for producing the rest of the OTA continued to inflate.

In response to a schedule described as “unsettled and changing daily”, NASA postponed the launch date of the telescope until April Perkin-Elmer’s schedules continued to slip web a rate of about one month per quarter, and at times delays reached one day for each day of work.

The spacecraft in which the telescope and instruments were to be housed was another major engineering challenge. It would have to withstand frequent passages from direct sunlight into the darkness of Earth’s shadowwhich would cause major changes in temperature, while being stable enough to allow extremely accurate pointing of the telescope.

A shroud of multi-layer insulation keeps the temperature within the telescope stable and surrounds a light aluminum shell in which the telescope and instruments sit.

Within the shell, a graphite-epoxy frame keeps the working parts of the telescope firmly aligned. To reduce that risk, a nitrogen gas purge was performed final launching the telescope into space.

The two initial, primary computers on the HST were the 1. A co-processor for the DF was added during Servicing Mission 1 inwhich consisted of two redundant strings of an Intel-based processor with an math co-processor.

Additionally, some of the science instruments and components had their own embedded microprocessor-based control systems. When launched, the HST carried five scientific instruments: It was built by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratoryand incorporated a set of 48 filters isolating spectral lines of particular astrophysical interest.

Each CCD has a resolution of 0. The GHRS was a spectrograph designed to operate in the ultraviolet. It was built by the Goddard Space Flight Center and could achieve a spectral resolution of 90, Rather than CCDs these three instruments used photon -counting digicons as their detectors.

It was optimized for visible and ultraviolet light observations of variable stars and other astronomical objects varying in brightness. HST’s guidance system can also be used as a scientific instrument.

Its three Fine Guidance Sensors FGS are primarily used to keep the telescope accurately pointed during an observation, but can also be used to carry out extremely accurate astrometry ; measurements accurate to within 0.

The Space Telescope Science Institute STScI is responsible for the scientific operation of the telescope and the delivery of data products to astronomers. NASA had wanted to keep this function in-house, but scientists wanted it to be based in an academic establishment.

One rather complex task that falls to STScI is scheduling observations for the telescope. Observations cannot take place when the telescope passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly due to elevated radiation levels, and there are also sizable exclusion zones web the Sun precluding observations of MercuryMoon and Earth.

Earth and Moon avoidance keeps bright light out of the FGSs, and keeps scattered light from entering the instruments. Earth observations were used very early in the program to generate flat-fields for the WFPC1 instrument.

Due to the precession of the orbit, the location of the CVZ moves slowly over a period of eight weeks. Observation schedules are typically finalized only a few days in advance, as a longer lead time would mean there was a chance that the target would be unobservable by the time it was due to be observed.

By earlythe planned launch date of October that year looked feasible, but the Challenger accident brought the U. The telescope had to be kept in a clean room, powered up and purged with nitrogen, until a launch could be rescheduled.

This delay did allow time for engineers to perform extensive tests, swap 2060 a possibly failure-prone battery, and make other improvements. Eventually, following the resumption of shuttle flights inthe launch of the telescope was scheduled for On April 24,shuttle mission STS saw Discovery launch the telescope successfully into its planned orbit.

Hubble soft five science instruments at a given time, plus the Fine Guidance Sensorswhich are mainly used for aiming the telescope but are occasionally used for science astrometry.

Early instruments were replaced with more advanced ones during the Shuttle servicing missions. COSTAR was strictly a corrective optics device rather than a true science instrument, but occupied one of the five instrument bays.

The current location of GHRS is unclear. Within weeks of the launch of the telescope, the returned images indicated a serious problem with the optical system. Although the first images appeared to be sharper than those of ground-based telescopes, Hubble failed to achieve a final sharp focus and the best image quality obtained was drastically lower than expected.

Images of point sources spread out over a radius of more than one arcsecond, instead of having a point spread function PSF concentrated within a circle 0. Analysis of the flawed images showed that the cause of the problem was that the primary mirror had been polished to the wrong shape.

The effect of the mirror flaw on scientific observations depended on the particular observation—the core of the aberrated PSF was sharp enough to permit high-resolution observations of bright objects, 2060 spectroscopy of point sources was only affected through a sensitivity loss.

However, the loss of light to the large, out of focus halo severely reduced the usefulness of the telescope for faint objects or high-contrast imaging. This meant that nearly all of the cosmological programs were essentially impossible, since they required observation of exceptionally faint objects.

A commission headed by Lew Allendirector of the Jet Propulsion Laboratorywas established to determine how the error could 2060 arisen. The Allen Commission found that a reflective null correctora testing device used to achieve a properly shaped non-spherical mirror, had been incorrectly assembled—one lens was out of position by 1.

However, for the final manufacturing soft figuringthey switched to the custom-built reflective null corrector, designed explicitly to meet very strict tolerances. The incorrect assembly of the device resulted in the mirror being ground very precisely but to the wrong shape.

A few final tests, using the conventional null correctors, correctly reported spherical aberration. But these results were dismissed, thus missing the opportunity to catch the error, because the reflective null corrector was considered more accurate.

The commission blamed the failings primarily on Perkin-Elmer.

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The telescope had to be kept in a clean room, powered up and purged with nitrogen, until a launch could be rescheduled. This delay did allow time for engineers to perform extensive tests, swap out a possibly failure-prone battery, and make other improvements.

Eventually, following the resumption of shuttle flights in , the launch of the telescope was scheduled for On April 24, , shuttle mission STS saw Discovery launch the telescope successfully into its planned orbit.

Hubble accommodates five science instruments at a given time, plus the Fine Guidance Sensors , which are mainly used for aiming the telescope but are occasionally used for science astrometry. Early instruments were replaced with more advanced ones during the Shuttle servicing missions.

COSTAR was strictly a corrective optics device rather than a true science instrument, but occupied one of the five instrument bays. The current location of GHRS is unclear.

Within weeks of the launch of the telescope, the returned images indicated a serious problem with the optical system. Although the first images appeared to be sharper than those of ground-based telescopes, Hubble failed to achieve a final sharp focus and the best image quality obtained was drastically lower than expected.

Images of point sources spread out over a radius of more than one arcsecond, instead of having a point spread function PSF concentrated within a circle 0. Analysis of the flawed images showed that the cause of the problem was that the primary mirror had been polished to the wrong shape.

The effect of the mirror flaw on scientific observations depended on the particular observation—the core of the aberrated PSF was sharp enough to permit high-resolution observations of bright objects, and spectroscopy of point sources was only affected through a sensitivity loss.

However, the loss of light to the large, out of focus halo severely reduced the usefulness of the telescope for faint objects or high-contrast imaging. This meant that nearly all of the cosmological programs were essentially impossible, since they required observation of exceptionally faint objects.

A commission headed by Lew Allen , director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory , was established to determine how the error could have arisen. The Allen Commission found that a reflective null corrector , a testing device used to achieve a properly shaped non-spherical mirror, had been incorrectly assembled—one lens was out of position by 1.

However, for the final manufacturing step figuring , they switched to the custom-built reflective null corrector, designed explicitly to meet very strict tolerances. The incorrect assembly of the device resulted in the mirror being ground very precisely but to the wrong shape.

A few final tests, using the conventional null correctors, correctly reported spherical aberration. But these results were dismissed, thus missing the opportunity to catch the error, because the reflective null corrector was considered more accurate.

The commission blamed the failings primarily on Perkin-Elmer. Relations between NASA and the optics company had been severely strained during the telescope construction, due to frequent schedule slippage and cost overruns.

NASA found that Perkin-Elmer did not review or supervise the mirror construction adequately, did not assign its best optical scientists to the project as it had for the prototype , and in particular did not involve the optical designers in the construction and verification of the mirror.

While the commission heavily criticized Perkin-Elmer for these managerial failings, NASA was also criticized for not picking up on the quality control shortcomings, such as relying totally on test results from a single instrument.

The design of the telescope had always incorporated servicing missions, and astronomers immediately began to seek potential solutions to the problem that could be applied at the first servicing mission, scheduled for While Kodak had ground a back-up mirror for Hubble, it would have been impossible to replace the mirror in orbit, and too expensive and time-consuming to bring the telescope back to Earth for a refit.

Instead, the fact that the mirror had been ground so precisely to the wrong shape led to the design of new optical components with exactly the same error but in the opposite sense, to be added to the telescope at the servicing mission, effectively acting as ” spectacles ” to correct the spherical aberration.

The first step was a precise characterization of the error in the main mirror. Because of the way the HST’s instruments were designed, two different sets of correctors were required.

An inverse error built into their surfaces could completely cancel the aberration of the primary. However, the other instruments lacked any intermediate surfaces that could be figured in this way, and so required an external correction device.

It consists of two mirrors in the light path with one ground to correct the aberration. Hubble was designed to accommodate regular servicing and equipment upgrades while in orbit.

Instruments and limited life items were designed as orbital replacement units. The necessary work was then carried out in multiple tethered spacewalks over a period of four to five days.

After a visual inspection of the telescope, astronauts conducted repairs, replaced failed or degraded components, upgraded equipment, and installed new instruments. Once work was completed, the telescope was redeployed, typically after boosting to a higher orbit to address the orbital decay caused by atmospheric drag.

After the problems with Hubble’s mirror were discovered, the first servicing mission assumed greater importance, as the astronauts would need to do extensive work to install corrective optics.

The seven astronauts for the mission were trained to use about a hundred specialized tools. The solar arrays and their drive electronics were also replaced, as well as four gyroscopes in the telescope pointing system, two electrical control units and other electrical components, and two magnetometers.

The onboard computers were upgraded with added coprocessors , and Hubble’s orbit was boosted. On January 13, , NASA declared the mission a complete success and showed the first sharper images.

Its success was a boon for NASA, as well as for the astronomers who now had a more capable space telescope. This led to an increased warming rate for the instrument and reduced its original expected lifetime of 4.

Servicing Mission 3A, flown by Discovery , took place in December , and was a split-off from Servicing Mission 3 after three of the six onboard gyroscopes had failed. The fourth failed a few weeks before the mission, rendering the telescope incapable of performing scientific observations.

It increases throughput by moving some computing tasks from the ground to the spacecraft and saves money by allowing the use of modern programming languages. This meant that COSTAR was no longer required, since all new instruments had built-in correction for the main mirror aberration.

Plans called for Hubble to be serviced in February , but the Columbia disaster in , in which the orbiter disintegrated on re-entry into the atmosphere, had wide-ranging effects on the Hubble program.

As no shuttles were capable of reaching both HST and the ISS during the same mission, future crewed service missions were canceled. A gap in space-observing capabilities between a decommissioning of Hubble and the commissioning of a successor was of major concern to many astronomers, given the significant scientific impact of HST.

On the other hand, many astronomers felt strongly that the servicing of Hubble should not take place if the expense were to come from the JWST budget. The National Academy of Sciences convened an official panel, which recommended in July that the HST should be preserved despite the apparent risks.

These plans were later canceled, the robotic mission being described as “not feasible”. Griffin , changed the situation, as Griffin stated he would consider a manned servicing mission.

In October Griffin gave the final go-ahead, and the day mission by Atlantis was scheduled for October Hubble’s main data-handling unit failed in September , [93] halting all reporting of scientific data until its back-up was brought online on October 25, Since the start of the program, a number of research projects have been carried out, some of them almost solely with Hubble, others coordinated facilities such as Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESO ‘s Very Large Telescope.

Although the Hubble observatory is nearing the end of its life, there are still major projects scheduled for it. One example is the upcoming Frontier Fields program, [] inspired by the results of Hubble’s deep observation of the galaxy cluster Abell The survey “aims to explore galactic evolution in the early Universe, and the very first seeds of cosmic structure at less than one billion years after the Big Bang.

Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected; each has multi-wavelength data from Spitzer and other facilities, and has extensive spectroscopy of the brighter galaxies.

The program, officially named “Hubble Deep Fields Initiative “, is aimed to advance the knowledge of early galaxy formation by studying high-redshift galaxies in blank fields with the help of gravitational lensing to see the “faintest galaxies in the distant universe.

Anyone can apply for time on the telescope; there are no restrictions on nationality or academic affiliation, but funding for analysis is only available to US institutions. Calls for proposals are issued roughly annually, with time allocated for a cycle lasting about one year.

Proposals are divided into several categories; “general observer” proposals are the most common, covering routine observations. Snapshot observations are used to fill in gaps in the telescope schedule that cannot be filled by regular GO programs.

Astronomers may make “Target of Opportunity” proposals, in which observations are scheduled if a transient event covered by the proposal occurs during the scheduling cycle.

Astronomers can apply to use DD time at any time of year, and it is typically awarded for study of unexpected transient phenomena such as supernovae. Other uses of DD time have included the observations that led to views of the Hubble Deep Field and Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and in the first four cycles of telescope time, observations that were carried out by amateur astronomers.

Public image processing of Hubble data is encouraged as most of the data in the archives has not been processed into color imagery. The first director of STScI, Riccardo Giacconi , announced in that he intended to devote some of his director discretionary time to allowing amateur astronomers to use the telescope.

The total time to be allocated was only a few hours per cycle but excited great interest among amateur astronomers. Proposals for amateur time were stringently reviewed by a committee of amateur astronomers, and time was awarded only to proposals that were deemed to have genuine scientific merit, did not duplicate proposals made by professionals, and required the unique capabilities of the space telescope.

Thirteen amateur astronomers were awarded time on the telescope, with observations being carried out between and A second study from another group of amateurs was also published in Icarus.

These were projects that were both scientifically important and would require significant telescope time, which would be explicitly dedicated to each project.

This guaranteed that these particular projects would be completed early, in case the telescope failed sooner than expected. The panels identified three such projects: Hubble has helped resolve some long-standing problems in astronomy, while also raising new questions.

Some results have required new theories to explain them. Among its primary mission targets was to measure distances to Cepheid variable stars more accurately than ever before, and thus constrain the value of the Hubble constant , the measure of the rate at which the universe is expanding, which is also related to its age.

While Hubble helped to refine estimates of the age of the universe, it also cast doubt on theories about its future. Astronomers from the High-z Supernova Search Team and the Supernova Cosmology Project used ground-based telescopes and HST to observe distant supernovae and uncovered evidence that, far from decelerating under the influence of gravity , the expansion of the universe may in fact be accelerating.

Three members of these two groups have subsequently been awarded Nobel Prizes for their discovery. The high-resolution spectra and images provided by the HST have been especially well-suited to establishing the prevalence of black holes in the nuclei of nearby galaxies.

While it had been hypothesized in the early s that black holes would be found at the centers of some galaxies, and astronomers in the s identified a number of good black hole candidates, work conducted with Hubble shows that black holes are probably common to the centers of all galaxies.

The legacy of the Hubble programs on black holes in galaxies is thus to demonstrate a deep connection between galaxies and their central black holes. The collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in was fortuitously timed for astronomers, coming just a few months after Servicing Mission 1 had restored Hubble’s optical performance.

Hubble images of the planet were sharper than any taken since the passage of Voyager 2 in , and were crucial in studying the dynamics of the collision of a comet with Jupiter, an event believed to occur once every few centuries.

Other discoveries made with Hubble data include proto-planetary disks proplyds in the Orion Nebula ; [] evidence for the presence of extrasolar planets around Sun-like stars; [] and the optical counterparts of the still-mysterious gamma ray bursts.

A unique window on the Universe enabled by Hubble are the Hubble Deep Field , Hubble Ultra-Deep Field , and Hubble Extreme Deep Field images, which used Hubble’s unmatched sensitivity at visible wavelengths to create images of small patches of sky that are the deepest ever obtained at optical wavelengths.

The images reveal galaxies billions of light years away, and have generated a wealth of scientific papers, providing a new window on the early Universe. The Wide Field Camera 3 improved the view of these fields in the infrared and ultraviolet, supporting the discovery of some of the most distant objects yet discovered, such as MACSJD.

In March , researchers announced that measurements of aurorae around Ganymede revealed that the moon has a subsurface ocean. Using Hubble to study the motion of its aurorae, the researchers determined that a large saltwater ocean was helping to suppress the interaction between Jupiter’s magnetic field and that of Ganymede.

On December 11, , Hubble captured an image of the first-ever predicted reappearance of a supernova , dubbed ” Refsdal “, which was calculated using different mass models of a galaxy cluster whose gravity is warping the supernova’s light.

Astronomers spotted four separate images of the supernova in an arrangement known as an Einstein Cross. The light from the cluster has taken about five billion years to reach Earth, though the supernova exploded some 10 billion years ago.

The detection of Refsdal’s reappearance served as a unique opportunity for astronomers to test their models of how mass, especially dark matter , is distributed within this galaxy cluster. On March 3, , researchers using Hubble data announced the discovery of the farthest known galaxy to date: Many objective measures show the positive impact of Hubble data on astronomy.

Over 15, papers based on Hubble data have been published in peer-reviewed journals, [] and countless more have appeared in conference proceedings. On average, a paper based on Hubble data receives about twice as many citations as papers based on non-Hubble data.

Although the HST has clearly helped astronomical research, its financial cost has been large. Deciding between building ground- versus space-based telescopes is complex. Even before Hubble was launched, specialized ground-based techniques such as aperture masking interferometry had obtained higher-resolution optical and infrared images than Hubble would achieve, though restricted to targets about 10 8 times brighter than the faintest targets observed by Hubble.

The usefulness of adaptive optics versus HST observations depends strongly on the particular details of the research questions being asked. In the visible bands, adaptive optics can only correct a relatively small field of view, whereas HST can conduct high-resolution optical imaging over a wide field.

Only a small fraction of astronomical objects are accessible to high-resolution ground-based imaging; in contrast Hubble can perform high-resolution observations of any part of the night sky, and on objects that are extremely faint.

In addition to its scientific results, Hubble has also made significant contributions to aerospace engineering , in particular the performance of systems in low Earth orbit. These insights result from Hubble’s long lifetime on orbit, extensive instrumentation, and return of assemblies to the Earth where they can be studied in detail.

In particular, Hubble has contributed to studies of the behavior of graphite composite structures in vacuum, optical contamination from residual gas and human servicing, radiation damage to electronics and sensors, and the long term behavior of multi-layer insulation.

Gyros are now assembled using pressurized nitrogen. Hubble data was initially stored on the spacecraft. When launched, the storage facilities were old-fashioned reel-to-reel tape recorders , but these were replaced by solid state data storage facilities during servicing missions 2 and 3A.

All images from Hubble are monochromatic grayscale , taken through a variety of filters, each passing specific wavelengths of light, and incorporated in each camera. Color images are created by combining separate monochrome images taken through different filters.

This process can also create false-color versions of images including infrared and ultraviolet channels, where infrared is typically rendered as a deep red and ultraviolet is rendered as a deep blue.

Observations made on Director’s Discretionary Time are exempt from the proprietary period, and are released to the public immediately. Calibration data such as flat fields and dark frames are also publicly available straight away.

All data in the archive is in the FITS format, which is suitable for astronomical analysis but not for public use. Astronomical data taken with CCDs must undergo several calibration steps before they are suitable for astronomical analysis.

STScI has developed sophisticated software that automatically calibrates data when they are requested from the archive using the best calibration files available. This ‘on-the-fly’ processing means that large data requests can take a day or more to be processed and returned.

The process by which data is calibrated automatically is known as ‘pipeline reduction’, and is increasingly common at major observatories. Astronomers may if they wish retrieve the calibration files themselves and run the pipeline reduction software locally.

This may be desirable when calibration files other than those selected automatically need to be used. Hubble data can be analyzed using many different packages. The software runs as a module of IRAF , a popular astronomical data reduction program.

It has always been important for the Space Telescope to capture the public’s imagination, given the considerable contribution of taxpayers to its construction and operational costs.

Several initiatives have helped to keep the public informed about Hubble activities. Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged as an important public health problem over the past decade and are now considered an urgent antibiotic-resistant threat by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , the category of greatest concern 1.

In the United States, carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is primarily attributable to the production of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase KPC 2 , 3 , which is plasmid mediated and most commonly encountered in K.

Bloodstream infections BSIs caused by carbapenem-resistant K. More recently, whole-genome sequencing revealed that ST includes at least two distinct genetic lineages 10 , highlighting the ongoing evolution and adaptation of this strain.

Its divergence was based on differences in a hypervariable region encoding a K. In a separate investigation, ST harboring bla KPC-3 was exclusively associated with wzi allele type wzi , which corresponds to the novel capsule type C This KPCexpressing strain was found to have decreased virulence in a Galleria mellonella waxworm model, compared to strains carrying bla KPC Despite this close association between bla KPC variants and ST sublineages, several studies have demonstrated that the Tn transposon known to carry the bla KPC gene can be found on a variety of plasmids that are transferrable between Enterobacteriaceae 12 — 14 , although the nature of recipient strains has not been well defined.

While most carbapenem resistance in K. However, given that most hospital epidemiological investigations focus on identifying direct transmission events involving single clones, the contributions of plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer and other mechanisms to the CRKP epidemic remain largely unknown.

To better understand the interactions between susceptible and drug-resistant K. We assessed molecular variables in order to identify isolate characteristics including sequence and capsule types associated with the acquisition of multidrug resistance determinants.

Understanding the isolate and host characteristics that promote the emergence and transmission of CRKP among hospitalized patients may inform the design of interventions that limit dissemination.

Study isolates and chart review. This study was reviewed and approved by the institutional review board of Columbia University Medical Center. We retrospectively identified and retrieved all K.

The microbiology laboratory processes all clinical specimens obtained from the Columbia University hospital system, which includes large academic teaching hospitals for adults and children and a smaller community hospital that serves as a referral center for local skilled nursing facilities.

Repeat isolates collected from a single patient within a day period were not available for analysis. Isolates were retrospectively matched to patient medical records, and clinical information was extracted by chart review.

Detailed information on baseline comorbidities and disease severity at the time of the positive bloodstream culture was used to calculate Charlson comorbidity index scores CCISs and Pitt bacteremia scores PBSs , respectively.

Clinical outcomes were defined as i deaths within 30 days of the date of bacteremia and ii deaths during the index hospitalization. Susceptibility breakpoints were derived from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines CRKP isolates were defined by nonsusceptibility to any carbapenem, and Ceph-R isolates were nonsusceptible to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or cefepime, in accordance with infection control guidelines at our institution.

For patients from whom multiple isolates were collected, only the initial isolate susceptibility profiles were considered in assessments of clinical factors and outcomes and are reported in detail.

Genetic relatedness among K. Sequencing of the wzi gene locus was also performed for select isolates, including all Ceph-R and CRKP isolates and susceptible isolates that shared a ST with Ceph-R or CRKP isolates 18 ; wzi sequencing has been shown in previous studies to be a molecular method for rapid capsule serotyping and a proxy for K-typing Unique allele and sequence type numbers were requested from the Institut Pasteur for clones that had not been reported previously.

For patients with multiple positive blood cultures, only the first available isolate was used in the assessments of clinical variables and outcomes. Similar multivariable models were constructed to assess the relationships between molecular variables selected a priori and day mortality rates.

Data were analyzed using SAS 9. Clinical characteristics of patients. During the month study period, patients with K. Multiple isolates were collected for 29 patients, resulting in a total of K.

Of the patients, had susceptible, 24 Ceph-R, and 29 carbapenem-resistant K. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics are delineated in Tables 1 and 2. Baseline characteristics of patients with K.

In univariable analyses, differences between the three groups were seen in underlying comorbidities Table 1 and timing and risk factors for BSIs Table 2. The sources of infection did not differ significantly between patient groups.

Patients with susceptible and Ceph-R infections often had initial positive blood cultures obtained at or soon after admission; CRKP bacteremia tended to develop later in the hospital course.

Recent invasive surgery, central venous catheterization, Foley catheter use, and mechanical ventilation were correspondingly common in this group and might have served as additional risk factors for MDR infections.

Population structure of K. There were 13 STs comprising 4 or more isolates, and a unique ST was identified for isolates. There were 18 wzi allele types identified among 30 Ceph-R isolates and 12 wzi allele types seen among 47 CRKP isolates.

The 32 ST isolates were subdivided into six wzi allele types. We observed the highest number of STs among the susceptible isolates Fig. We identified different STs, and most of those were singletons 99 STs.

ST20 was the most common susceptible K. Moreover, only 5 STs were responsible for 4 or more isolates. We did not observe a dominant Ceph-R clone. The most frequently encountered ST, ST11, was noted for only 4 isolates.

Few STs included isolates with differing susceptibility phenotypes Fig. Susceptible and Ceph-R isolates shared six additional STs, i. The locus exhibited high levels of diversity, with 34 different wzi allele types among isolates, including seven new wzi alleles Table 3.

Among 30 Ceph-R isolates, 18 wzi alleles were identified; among 47 CRKP isolates amplification of the gene locus was unsuccessful for one isolate , 12 wzi alleles were encountered Fig. In some cases, mixing of wzi alleles and STs was seen.

Several wzi alleles were represented across isolates of various susceptibilities Table 3. Within ST, we encountered a variety of wzi alleles Fig. This observation is consistent with a new variant described as C by Diago-Navarro and colleagues at another large medical center in New York City Specific trial run can be repeated individually at any time.

Setup time of the analyzer must be as short as possible to avoid running for long period of time. The correction masses may be divided in case of fans or other discontinuous pa rts when the.

The da ta collector must be capable of saving the influence coefficients to reduce balancing. Dynamic unbalance is the most type of unbalance imposed in rotating eleme nts. For rigid rotors and.

Selecting one plane or two plane balancing is n ot straightforward. It generally depends on. One of the factors is the ratio of the length of the rotor L to the diameter of the rotor.

The other factor is the operating speed of the rotor. As a general rule of thumb, we can refer to. This is due to the fact that couple. Single Plane Two Plane. For single plane balancing, the relation between vibration displacement x and the unbalance is.

The influence coefficients can be f ound by running the. The trial mass procedure is actually a c alibration procedure to estimate the parameters of the. For soft bearing machines, the trial mass procedure must be applied t o each r otor since the.

T hus, one factory calibration procedure is required at each b alancing speed to. The sensitivity and phase response are. However, tria l mass procedure or.

For field balancing, influence coef ficients m ethod is u sed sin ce the system. The trial mass procedure for a single plane balancing can be listed as below:. The rotor is initially rotated without any trial mass t o measure the initial vibration x.

The rotor is stopped to attach a trial mass at a given radius and position. The influence coefficient can be found from the following equation: Consequently, the initial unbalance.

The above equation can be arranged in matrix. The trial mass p rocedure for two plane balancing requires two trial runs in addition to the first. In the first t rial run a trial mass is attached to the first correction plane while i n th e.

It is very hard or impossible to obtain zero unbalance condition in a rotating element, instead a. There ar e three schemes applied to detect. Experimental method which can be used for mass production.

Th is m ethod is based on. Once the baseline is d etected, it can be. Bearing force calculations which determine the allowable unbalance by taking into account. It is generally accepted that the permissible unbalance is proportion al to the mass of the rotor.

This implies that the product of permissible unbalance and. This constant is a. Balance quality grades are standa rdized in ISO Crankshaft drives of large Diesel engi nes. Complete engines for trucks and locom otives.

Crankshaft drives for engines of tr ucks and locomotives. Parts of agricultural machiner y. The smaller the number, the smoother th e operation. To calculate the permissible mass at a given plane, the following procedure is applied for s ingle.

For single plane balancing, the permissible unbalance at the corr ection plane is simply. Per m issuble Mass. Where R is the radius of correction mass. A narrow rotor of weight 25 kg and ru nning as speed of 15 00 RPM.

In this case, the calculated permissible unbalance should be distributed on both correction planes. The permissible unbalance at the left and right correction planes are given by:. Rotor with outer correction planes: In t his case the distance between.

Overhung and narrow rotors: The rules applied for these. Assumes equal permissible dynamic bearing loads. The plane for static corrections may be a third plane or either of the planes used for couple.

The existing unbalance at the left and right planes may be converted to equivalent static and. The balancing results will be accep ted when the amplitude of. Note that couple unbalance in the right plane is equal to.

In t he field of vibration analysis and balancing, some questions jump to the mind, what is the. Do we need some art to solve. In fact, we need both of them, science and art.

Experience plays important role especially when dealing with complex part of equipment. To run successful balancing program, some pitfalls must be avoided, examples are:.

Problems of probes such as electrical or me chanical r unout, bad location, bad connection,. Mechanical looseness of bearings and base plate. Mechanical defects such as runout, bent shaft and eccentricity.

Assembling the flange or coupling with different locations of bolts or other parts. Effect of critical speed and mode shape whe n balancing at high speeds. Effect of piping loading on the misalignment in pumps and compressors.

Prior to execute b alancing procedure, the following tasks should b e performed in order to avoid. Review t he critical speeds and unbalance response analysis to ensure correct pla cement of.

Some software can be used for. Obtain influence coefficients from the manufacturer if possible. When using proximity sensors, the runout in the reading can be found by slow rotation of.

Check for amplitude and phase repeatability between readings. Wait for vibration amplitude and phase to be stabilized before taking the final readings. Some turbomachinery requires few hours as the rotor heat soaks.

Calculate the correct permissible unbalance using the recommended standard. Maintain the same operating condition such as speed and load throughout the test. For hard-bearing balancing machines, it is essential to e nter the correct dimensions of the rotor.

This is because t hat in the. However, when using influence coefficients method based. Correction Plane Type or Correction Mode. Some computerized or portable systems permit t he definition of the type of correction pl ane.

Or in other words, it is possible to select correction mode. Moreover, it is p ossible to. Examples are pulleys, hubs, disks and electrical motors rotors. Hence, correction mass is.

For example, if the number of positions is 8 as shown in the figure above, and the required. In this case, two masses normally equal are. B alancing software calculate the angles o f.

The masses must be more. Given the required mass is. Some balancing software have the possibility to calculate the permissible masses at the balancing. If this feature is not availab le, then the user should carefully calculate the allowable.

Influence coefficients, as sated before, relate the response at a certain plan e with the u nbalance. They measure the flexibility of the rotor or th e inverse of stiffness.

The influence coeff icients can be found b y running the Trial Mass Procedure which. This procedure can be applied to both soft and h ard bearing. For field balancing, it is the most applied scheme.

The following procedure is used in two-plane balancing:. For field balancing, stop the machine to attach a reflecting tape on the rotating shaft to. Attach vibration and reference pickups to the machine and start.

Start your data collector to measure vibration due to initial unbalance. Stop the machine; a dd the first trial mass more than the permissible mass to the first. Start the machine and let the data collector measure vibration due to the first trial mass.

Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the second trial mass at the second correction plane, the first tr ial mass. Start the machine again and let the data collector measure vibration after adding the second.

The data collector will calculate the influence coefficients and accordingly will calculate the initial. Normally, the trial masses value selection is based on the. When the trial run fail to satisfy the requirements, then the trial mass can be increased and.

To enhance linearity of the results, some balancing software have the ability of recalculating the. In this case, the. To increase reliability of balancing results, the following actions should be taken:.

Set consistent method to measure ph ase angle. Normally, phase angle is positive in the. Allow some time for the vibration reading to be stabilized before proceeding. Repeat the unbalance detection to ensure stable masses and angles readings.

Best value is the. If the system does not respond as expected, such as the unbalance is increased when. Repeat the trial mass procedure carefully to estimate the influence. Do not take reading when the machine is still speeding up and do not stop the machine before.

Set large time for averaging process. For workshop balancing machines, attach the flanges and keys to simulate actual rotation. Measure and compensate the effect of flexible joint for workshop balancing machines with.

Misalignment is a condition where the shaft of the driver machine and the driven machine are not. The non-coaxial condition can be parallel misalignment or angular.

P arallel misalignment can be further. Horizontal misalignment refers t o. Parallel horizontal misalignment results when the.