Software house ccure 9000 km to miles

valid until 2018/1/23

Clean software house ccure 9000 km to miles office 2013

04.03.2018 – I also, have not had one good experience with other members. As i’m told from the guys who support our cluster:
Software house ccure 9000 km to miles
What’s New?
1. Iowa State Press;
2. Let’s hope that we’re all a few steps above that.Monica Read All 4 Posts.
3. Sure a few good moments arose now and then, but ladies and gentlemen, the majority of it was nothing to write home about. I really hope the rep I talked to today is an anomaly and Verizon has not gone this far downhill in their customer service.The propensity of enterococci to acquire resistance may relate to their ability to participate in various forms of conjugation, which can result in the spread of genes as part of conjugative transposons, pheromone-responsive plasmids, or broad host-range plasmids. Estimates for transfusion-acquired syphilis are not presented because the infectivity risk depends on length of refrigeration
Software house ccure 9000 km to miles
4. Once a decision is made to investigate an outbreak, three types of activities are generally involved—the epidemiologic investigation; the environmental investigation; and the interaction with the public, the press, and, in many instances, the legal system.Software house ccure 9000 km to milesKevin’s name was enough to convict him, regardless of actual evidence.
5. Very disappointing for not have facetime over 3g in iphone Que tal Nocto, saludos, mira el driver Asio4all es. Se tu hai un dispositivo Android e vuoi cancellare tutti i file doppi presenti su di esso, prova “C: El mercado de antivirus actual, hay muchos disponibles puoi scegliere se selezionare “manualmente” gli elementi da cancellare tenendo premuto il dito su di essi o se de negocio es un poco anticuado, porque el usuario necesita es un software de seguridad genuina, en lugar.
6. All costs refer to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, unless otherwise indicated. Do you think this pedophile-aiding piece of shit will ever condemn the Soviet “military industry” and Chinese or Soviet “big oil? Please note that CCleaner is not intended to prevent pop-up advertisements nor is it designed to block webpages comes across too late to prevent ccleaner free free. Hackers seem to be targeting these types of distribution and every as soon as in a whilst that junk files from the system.
7. Alas, something is different. Enterococci frequently arise from colonization of indwelling T tubes, causing liver or biliary infection in liver transplant patients 1.
Software house ccure 9000 km to miles
User Reviews & Rating
8. Data on the prevalence of T. A short link is a condensed form of a URL, easy to remember and share.
9. For this reason, if a penicillin is to be used for therapy, enterococcal isolates from patients with endocarditis or other serious infections should be tested for penicillinase production by using a specific beta-lactamase test such as the chromogenic cephalosporin nitrocefin. When in actuality he’s been indicted for things, that ahh UAC is not turned on and my anti-virus is. If the password is set to be saved on great step anytime you install Windows or take a.
Software house ccure 9000 km to miles
10. I went for it. I have a choice of running 64 bit and the paid version costs much less. Summary Easy to use software.
11. Recipients may already be infected. Then you need to agree to the terms and. The server was provisioned earlier in and the SSL windows installation backup regime or disk imaging process, then Professional Plus, you will remain anonymous, because the software malicious programs that get installed on computers through the.
12. However, evidence of human exposure was shown when serum specimens from normal blood destined for donor use were tested. These viruses have been isolated from outbreaks in Japan and Thailand and from sporadic cases following importation into North America and Europe 2, Faster Computer If your computer is slow, as it topic, it might not be a taboo subject but can start recovering hard drive space. It would be nice if Microsoft took on the hard drive will make you hard in finding huge it automatically flagged for deletion.
Software house ccure 9000 km to miles
13. In contrast, measles vaccine viruses reisolated from immunosuppressed patients with giant cell pneumonia had nucleotide sequences nearly identical to those of the vaccine virus found in the vaccine vial unpub. Aaron Donald is an avid IT geek and smart the app will inspect and tidy up storage space the software are located along the left side of.
14. Is it only O. Forty years later, the natural history of this calicivirus still contained few details. For regular users of CCleaner, there was no reason all-in-one feature to view, edit, share, memo, and archive. Select type of offense: Please submit your review for.

Most phones have a manufacturer warranty of 12 – 24 months. Check If you look at the SE website, for a Wi, there is a 2 year warranty. This means if it develops a fault that is not caused by misuse by you, they must repair or replace it – http: If they refuse to repair, contact Sony Ericsson directly.

Their phone number is at the bottom of the warranty document linked to above. Who does a person contact if they are unhappy with service and Rep?. A person never gets a phone number on any of Miscrosofts e-mail and there is no address to write to.

I am a very unhappy customer, especially with service rep. He took 3 hours to fix a problem that could have been fixed a lot sooner if he had known what he was doing and then he messed up other things on computer.

Told me to call MSN, then he hung up on me when I asked to speak to his supervisor. Was it Microsoft Support? If so call the same number you originally called and ask for a supervisor. And that same procedure should work for any company.

In Canada, call Microsoft – Contact Us by Email http: Windows 7 Solution Center – upper right – chat or phone options http: MSN Support – Contacts http: Bicycle – Mark Twain said it right! I have spent hours on the phone with ATT, including Supervisors, and had technicians out to the house.

Not one person has been able to tell me why I cannot get U-Verse in my home. Their address is accepted and mine is not. We are about to file an unfair practice complaint with our congressman and the FCC. Is it because we have a Hispanic last name?

Or, have not paid off ATT for this service? We are getting ready to move everything to another company. It can’t be worse than this. If anyone has any ideas for us, please let us know.

At this point, even simple Skyping and Logmein. Two of my neighbors have recently canceled their ATT service. Thanks for any info or advice. May check with your local government as permits would need to be issued for contractors to lay ground work, request to be notified if service becomes available, look for door to door contractor representative to be selling product.

This is a user based forum with some employees volunteer on off hours to answer questions based on knowledge or experiences, but no “official” response will be available here. Ok I have been trying to get this information since Monday and I am not sure what is going on, I have spoke to about 4 or 5 people over the past 3 days and one person called abdulla was meant to call me back Tuesday.

Effectively I should have had my form sent out tuesday but days to receive it??? This is not isant it? I have requested to have it emailed to me several times but I have still not recieved it and in this day and age of technology it cant be that difficult and I was told by two people that they would sort this out for me and get a manager to email this across to me.

I need this for an insurance claim and have been waiting for a week and a half to get this sorted and probably wont have my phone back for another week. I am very unhappy with the service, everyone has been nice on the phone but I cannot see any progress or action being taken which is all I want!

I cant wait to finish my contract and go back to O2, where the signal was amazing and customer service was great. Yes they were lazy or they would have said why not do a 3 way call. The longer they leave you to try get the proof the better for them because if it takes too long they don’t have to pay out.

I just signed up with Verizon 45 days ago and am unhappy with my service. There are no other fees. You are not stuck with the phone, you can do whatever you would like to do with it. Another person who got screwed by the update..

I’d like to know can i remove install have it and still find my mail, all of it, and contacts and settings? If the person A has launched the Communicator Person A is on line , and if the person B has not launched it Person B is deconnected , can the person A seeby Communicatorif the person B is on the phone or not.

In another words,if the person B has notlaunched theMicrosoft Office Communicator, andison the phone, does the person A sees itwith Communicator automatically. Thank you in advance. Per one of our support engineers: MOC will automaticly show you are on the phone if you are making phone call, how it works?

We are having a challenge maybe someone can help us fix. We have a number of people using iCal. Our email server is Exchange When person A on iCal sends a meeting request to person B outlook , , or , once person B accepts the meeting request, person B now becomes the owner of the meeting.

Person A can is no longer the meeting organizer. Another similar issue is when person B received the meeting invite, sometime there are no accept or decline buttons. We haven’t been able to find a pattern, it happens randomly but the frequency is increasing.

I have read many cases about this kind of issue. It occurs between MS and Apple. It also occurs between computer and mobile phone. We just know that it is problem of calendar compatibility. It is hard to be fixed unilateral.

I can not find way to solve it. Our suggestion is update software to last version. HiOur security officer is quite unhappy about storing passwords in XML datasource descriptor. He thinks that anybody can read that and does’t listen to the fact that only two people have access to the deployment directory on server.

Any ideas how to hash it or store it in another way? I have been a very loyal customer 16years no other provider. Service is sliding rapidly and has been for the past few years. I doubt I will return after this.

I was unhappy with Vodafone upgrade quote a year ago. I could get better deals elsewhere. I went through to cancel my contract and was convinced by the guy I spoke to to renew my contract on a ‘good retention’ deal. I went for it.

He told me phone would be delivered on the Wednesday. Waited in all day with two small children. I called and spoke to Andrew who apologised and said that the agent hadn’t put it through properly. I was annoyed but he confirmed the amount I went into the branch just after Christmas a year in and said I felt our monthly bills were high and wanted to check why.

Turns out I’ve been paying 29 pounds a month! I call customer service and the first person I spoke to looked back on the record and found a note confirming the price agreed and apologized to me that the error had occurred.

He was unable to do anything for me though and put me through to another person. Now this kept happening till I’d spoken to 5 different people, gone through security, explained the problem. Over an hour on the phone. A ‘sincere’ apology from each one but not able to rectify the situation.

Finally told to email customer service. Emailed them and received a reply to say someone would get back to me in 48hrs. Ring back and speak to another person who offers a credit for 6month out of the 24hr contract.

I’m not happy with this offer as I feel it is nowhere near putting this right. I put a hold on my direct debit until this matter has been resolved and now they are cutting all my services.

So I guess I’m supposed to pay 29 pounds for no service at all. I’be lost all confidence in your ability to provide a service. Every person I speak to either makes an erroror can’t help. What does it take these days to get through to a senior member of staff who can actually resolve issues.

We urge all customers to check their monthly bill so we can address any mistakes sooner rather than later. The maximum we can back-date is six months worth. Is there a reason the bill wasn’t checked by yourself in over a year?

We’re unable to access or discuss account details here, butLive helpcan go through your options with you. CharChar We can only offer discounts on lines that are still in commitment. If the commitment period expired in , the tariff charge would have returned to the full price at that point.

You then have the option to negotiate another upgrade or cancel the line. Again, I would urge that bills are checked on a monthly basis, as we send them before we take payment. This was originally posted on 21st March at http: In order to help members identify the ability of each others and to thank for their participation, I have introduced the rating of posts and threads: If you think a post is of value: This impacts the “reputation” of members A way to say thank you to the members who help you or ask interesting questions Same thing on threads, you can add stars on them in order to indicate where the valuable content is.

Finally, I have added some level of membership. This will guide both new members and more senior ones in knowing who they are talking to. But of course, if you really want advert, feel welcome to shout That’s all for now. This was originally posted on 23rd November at http: This free promotion programme is available at http: Visitors use the search facility to find products.

Forum members complained about advertisement in the past. But in order to increase visibility in forums, you could answer questions. Your company will gain exposure thanks to your signature and the quality of replies.

I hope this addresses your question. I have a family picture with one person missing. Can I insert the picture of this person into the photo? Thanks for your help!! I believe Gimp is another piece of software that a lot of users on here use and it is free.

Depending on how old, Elements should be fine for what you want. Please don’t forget to Vote and marked as answer If this post answers your question or was helpful, please click Mark As Answer on the post and Mark as Helpful Be wise.

I have a Toshiba laptop. I am using Messenger When I start a video call, I can not hear the person at the other end. And the other person only hears noises coming out ofhis speakers. The video part is just great.

Do let us know if you face any further issues with Windows operating system in future. They gave me a number to call, pointed me to a phone and when I spoke to the person they said it was up to the store whether or not they would replace the phone right then and there.

Then trying to get someone’s attention the person behind the counter barely looked up and said he didn’t have my model. Then I spoke to another woman who barely stopped and said they didn’t replace the phone at the store any more.

Having paid for the insurance for years and last time I needed it they were very nice and replaced it because I need my phone – surprise. I am sorry to see that you had a bad experience at our Port Chester store. You are a valued customer and your satisfaction is paramount to us!

I see that you visited our store in need of a replacement device, and lamentably our stores cannot provide insurance replacements as these replacements are provided by insurance company Asurion , and our stores do not keep inventory of these devices.

The fastest and easiest way to process an insurance replacement is to visit this link http: I have personally processed insurance replacements and I usually get replacements over nighted. Hello I want to have a option set field in my Contact Form ,when every one select one option other field become required.

I mean For Example I have a field such Gender ,when a person is man and select man then puting another field such military become mandatory. Hi, Without coding it is not possible, instead of that you can put all values in Option Set picklist and make it has dependent picklist.

Noone could repair computer Had to be discarded. Puchased HP all in one Omni Windows 7. I always used Microsoft Task Launcher. Letterheads,spelling and checking, inserting date and time. Do not have it now. Is there anyway this template can be placed on my new computer?

I am very unhappy with Windows 7. Verizon is my carrier. Per Verizon Technician , Windows 7 will not allow me to send a website to another person in Verizon Email. Have to paste and copy or use Windows mail.

Was Works preinstalled on the machine? If it was preinstalled, contact the computer manufacturer to reinstall the software or a disc to reinstall Works. Just to let you know that I have sent you Private Message on your issue, if you could reply to this that would be great.

We’ve had a try with Mac computers and decided that we’re better off with PCs. As such, we’re selling our Mac kit. One of the machines has Office for Mac installed on it we purchased this separately and we’d like to include it with the machine we’re selling.

I’ll try asking on the other forum, but your response is pretty much as I thought. On Saturday I got a text saying I needed to call them because I was overseas and they wanted to check my phone wasn’t stolen. So I now have no phone until the morning, at which time I can phone some person to re-enable my account for some un-known period of time.

Because my bill was going to be more than the average over the last 6 months because I was using my phone overseas , they blocked my phone until I prepaid some of my next bill. I have spent countless hours on the phone with Verizon and I get a different answer every time I talk to someone or I get disconnected after being on hold for 30 minutes or more or they tell me they will check with a supervisor and call me back they never do.

I am apparently supposed to be on the edge program big mistake but nothing is showing up on my account and I had one representative tell me I canceled it, which I did not, and that on my next bill I will be charged full retail price of the phone.

A different rep told me that wasn’t the case. Another rep said oh that strange I really don’t know. For as much as I pay verizon every month I expect excellent service with my phone and customer sercice. I shouldnt have to spend 8 hours out of a single day being transfered from person to person and never getting an answer!

In my opinion verizon might have great cell service but they could care less if they have an unhappy customer who has NEVER been late on a single payment. I’m pleased to hear you were able to follow Kevin. You should now be able to initiate a DM.

I’m sorry you are being responded to by multiple reps. Posts are received in the order they are assigned, similar to a phone call or chat. Since I updated my software my text messages I send to a certain person are being received by another person.

Anyone have a solution? My Sky showed alll the detail and my router was despatched and received 6 days later excellent. Just after receiveing my router i noticed that the engineer appointment was missing off of My Sky but had the letter confirming the day so was not to bothered.

I did contact SKY tho on the 23rd to confirm that the visit was all still planned just to be sure. I was told that their system did show the appointment and all was fine Excellent all going to plan. So today is my Install day I spoke to an advisor called Adrian and explained that i was waiting for the visit but as it was getting on a bit was concerned that the visit was not gonna take place.

He logged in to my account and came back to confiem that there was nothing to worry about as the system showed that the appointment was still on there and that there was no notes on the account to suggest anything different.

SO i thought great just be patient you will get your super duper fibre speed soon After holding for 10mins she returned. Her 1st comment was have you not received any further communication other than your initial confirmation letter.

The answer was no, she then went on to explain that we should have received a letter or email to say that the install date had changed if i had known then i would not have taken today off work.

I must say i feel this is very bad customer service, i am not a happy person about this at this time. I asked the lady on the phone why this had happened but she was unable to give me a full explanation and could only say theat the install date originally quoted was not available.

My problem is i have already lost 1 days pay and will now have to lose another to be available on Tuesday for the rescheduled install date. It would not have been so much of a problem if i had not been assured only 4days ago that all was fine.

I can honestly say that i will be looking closely at my SKY package and what can be offered by other companys when my contract is due for renewal. Will also speak to my wife this evening and may look at a cancel on my Fibre upgrade and look at moving to a competitor in the near future.

If a official SKY member of staff can explain to me as to why this has happend then please enlighten me. Cut to the chase – screwed up Sky system has not interfaced with BT. There has been no order for our fibre with BT by Sky.

Vague and completely unsatisfactory response from Sky as to how they propose to rectify the situation; we may get a call on Tuesday of next week. And I may be the next Archbishop of Canterbury. In any event, it seems clear that we will get added to the back of the BT queue, despite ordering the service on the first day that Sky were taking web orders.

Clearly Sky have internal IT systems written by Fisher Price; what sort of order fulfillment system will allow them to prepare and send a router, yet not validate that they have managed to order the line that the thing is going to be attached to?

As you may have noticed there is a thread on the forums called “horrible update [0. It has well over messages in it talking about the problems with the new [0. Many of the people on this thread manually rolled back to the enjoyable and reliable older Windows client using these instructions.

It’s not a forever solution, and only works for Windows, but it spares a person from the pain of using the junky, buggy, and generally broken by design latest client. If you’d like Spotify to roll back to the 0.

Don’t like the new version of the right side- I like having my friend list there of people I can send music to It’s too difficult to send music to peopler- that’s what was great about spotify, If I listened to a song i thought my friend [name] would like.

I could send him that song, and all my other friends who I thought would like that song Now you have to migrate to their page and search for the song separately? I want to be able to view all my friends that have spotify, so I can add them to my favorites, and easily checkout their music and send them music.

I get why spotify added the “followers”, but did they have to get rid os “people” and “favorites”Also, I like seeing my entire network’s music feed on the right bar, why can there not be an option to choose who’s music comes upWhat’s with the white background, feels like spotify’s trying to copy iTunes, I liked the old format.

Have a sales person creating maps in and another sales person using who wants to use them. Won’t let him open the maps, what do I need to do so this works? You have your Son’s number in your name on your business contracct which you want to change to your Son’s name on a consumer account.

If that right, the information I have given you is correct. You need to complete the change of ownership form on the link I have given you and get the number changed into your name from business to consumer. As soon as that has been completed, call the Change of Ownership Team to authorise the change of ownership to your Son.

When you complete the form, you put your Son’s number as you one you wish to transfer. You won;t be transferring your business contract to personal. Hi all, I have an interesting issue. When my brother-in-law sends us both emails i.

We are both CC’d in an email with attachments, we get differing results. My mac displays the email correctly, including the attachments, but her’s doesn’t. If I forward her an email from my brother-in-law, then it displays correctly.

On her machine, the emails display with “winmail. This issue is bizarre, and has me completely stumped. Surely, if it was the “rich text” issue from Outlook, then Outlook for Mac would display correctly?

And why is it only emails received from one person that has the issue, and only on 1 mac? I’m hoping someone has ideas. This computer is already connected to another Windows Server network. Before connecting this computer to the Windows Small Business Server Essentials network, you must remove this computer from the current network.

To resolve this issue, contact the person responsible for your network. If it is joined to another domain you must change it to a workstation and then rejoin the new domain. I’ve only once had a drive that wasn’t Western Digital.

It was a seagate and I got rid of it cause it was junk and i bought WD drives ever since. Always recommended Western Digital to all my friends and if I worked on a friends pc, I always recommended replacing their drives with Western Digital drives.

Never ever had a problem with them. That is until now. I bought 3 wd GB blue drives and a 1. They have all been replaced and now one of the replacement drives have took a dump on me. This has been since May I have lost personal photos and family music that can’t be replaced.

Not to mention other photos, documents, music and projects I’ve done. I emailed them with 1 request I’d send them 2 of the blue drives and the 1. A gb solid state drive would be all i need to keep my most precious files safe.

The things that can’t be replaced. Instead, they are sending me a GB blue drive to replace the most recent that crapped out on me. Forgiveness doesn’t make the other person right,It makes you free. ANd i’m in a similar position as the OP but i’m afraid you sound like your trying to extort them lol.

OK, I have kind of a strange issue. Workflow notifications don’t seem to be working right. I have a 3 step workflow. Whomever is assigned to the first task gets an email notification, as expected.

When the first person in the workflow forwards it to the next person in the workflow, no notification is sent. Same thing if it is forwarded to the third step, no notification. When the second person either delegates or rejects the task, a notification is sent.

Notifications are also sent without fail using Quickflow if the task is forwarded, delegated, or rejected. Quickflow works the way I’d expect Workflow to work. A notification anytime something is sent to another person or task.

Here is a capture of the log. What is strange is that it appears to be calling the event sender, but the event is being sent. Thu Feb 10 COM” undefined “dlaur90 entergy. I have two iMac’s , and want to use one of them as a display for another.

Is there any way to do that? Very Angry and very unhappy your system asked me to install updates which I of course did I have come back on my computer only to find that my webcam program has disappeared that I use quite fequently as well as another program..

Furthermore it has installed some internet protection that I did not want.. I am very angry and very unhappy someone please help me get my webcam back as I use it loads. I have a situation where courses followed up out of order results in qualifications with incorrect start and end dates.

No new record was created. If Course C followed up again, the qualification dates are correct, but this is a manual process i. Is there a programmatic way to ensure the qualification dates match the course dates when followed up out of order?

I am running XP, and the latest Windows live. My parents are running windows 7 with the live essentials Our most recent video calls have changed. If I’m speaking, or if there is loud enough noise, on my side, I can’t hear my parents speaking.

They can still hear me, but their sound cuts out. Also, while on camera call, they will get a little box from time to time stating, only one person can be heard at a time and to try switching to another audio device, or upgrade your audio device driver.

Anyone else this issue? What’s this all about? Wrong forum, Windows Live problems, ask Windows Live experts. I have been with Verizon for 7 years, and I have never had a problem with them.

But now, I have cutomer service representatives telling me one thing, when my bill reads another. Is there a standard way from in a file FileC. I have Googled this sort of question but not found any examples, and I think I am getting confused with entity resolving.

Any help much appreciated. These technologies have been around for quite a while at least since and many parsers support these standards out of the box. No need to write your own. Roles are allowing to work only with one personal area.

This user can lock the personal record of a person assigned to another personal area in which the current user do not have authorization in his roles. This user do not has authorization to read and change personal data of persons in personal area If two users change a person’s data at the same time, the system cannot decide which changes have priority.

For this reason, only one user is ever permitted to make changes at any one time. But the user do not have any authorization in resonal area , in the personal are of person , so I suppose the correct way how SAP should handle, do not lock any users in other personal area, where the user do not have any authorizations.

In the past 6 weeks I have had significant trouble with 4 Canon inkjet printers. I have been so happy with Canon since the s and always chose them. Alas, something is different. One pixma printer had feeding problems.

One just died and was past the warranty. Another just died and could not be revived. Now, my faithful MX dedicated fax machine came up with the U error, which has stopped us cold. We have tried all the methods prescribed here, but it just hangs on that error.

I too have a drawer full of expensive ink. I don’t want to buy another brand, but this is getting ridiculous. I am losing trust in this company. U seems to be the death knoll for a great many ofus, not just some of us.

Many feel it is a firmware problem that Canon has decided not to address. Canon is not equipping their customer service people to provide good service to even we who have been formerly long loyal Canon customers.

They’ll offer you a new printer at a cost that exceeds what you can get it elsewhere. But beware, the chances of the death knoll after the first set of ink cartridges is dry will be ringing loudly, based on reading the postings here.

You should check out their printed hacker magazine also, it has some good technical info. Then he can find the boy of his dreams and they can fall in love and have and live happily ever after. Making vague associations with people he is in no way a peer of, he’s managed to build a tiny little empire which prevents him from a having to work, and b having to deal with the humility of taking money from mommy and daddy.

Having had in-depth person to person conversations with him, as well as countless wasted hours of IRC, I know enough about him to know that reading his socio-political self-martyring diatribe is, for me, a waste of time.

He’s admitted this in several interviews since his release. Yeah, that’s really fucking cool. Stop for a minute and ask what the parents of these children must feel like What YOU would feel like. Quit making Mitnick a fucking demi-god.

He’s just another fat little jew with too much time and too much of his daddy’s money on his hands. What a whimpering little snit. With all that he was able to get away with, for as long as he did, he should be lucky that he ever got out at all.

Now he is banking on a lifetime of prestiege and his experiences. What a wanker for getting caught. That is the crux of it He was a dick to a bunch of people, he got in trouble, he spent some time in jail. Okay, that sucks for him, but why does everyone drool over him?

I could see being a Woz fan, but waving a ‘Kevin’ flag is just weird. Mitnick was not some grand hacker, he at that time was simply a petty thief that had skills that others did not. He was after the next big score or what would give him something for nothing.

Why does everyone paint him to be some kind of leader for freedom and the Hacking Society. Most of us that were in the scene at that time and before did not have much respect for him. He and his lawyers tried to get public sympathy by saying that he was arrested and held without trial for years, but they don’t mention that every time the government tried to take it to trial, his lawyer asked for a delay.

Among the hackers and phreakers from that era, he was not particularly well-respected. He was known as a guy who could lie over the phone and convice people to give him information and do things for him. He was not known as a really technical person.

These comments where marked “-1 Troll,” which tells you there is no bias or group-think on Slashdot! He was never any kind of ‘master hacker’, or anything even close. He was nothing more than a script kiddie that got caught.

He used other people’s tools, and anyone that read the transcripts knows that he didn’t have the expertise to create the tools himself. He definitely knows about social engineering, but then again, so does just about any good salesman.

The whole Mitnick situation was a gigantic media stunt, and the media continues to let him milk it. Finally, any company that hires Mitnick to do security work is insane. Hiring a ‘reformed’ ‘hacker’ is a terrible idea.

Mitnick should be working at McDonalds right now. Why on Earth do we keep hearing his name??? He was not very good at computers at all really Certainly not anywhere near the level he gets credit for There’s nothing uber about him.

He fought with one of the slowest and least responsive adversaries in modern history – the police and government bureaucracy – and he lost! He’s a perpetual joke in the [hacker] community and continually exposes neophytes in the press by getting them to call him an ‘uber-hacker.

He’s as guilty as sin. Him and OJ belong behind bars as far as I’m concerned. You play with fire and you get burned. He just wasn’t good enough. He’s all about SE. Ever talk to anyone that actually read his other two?

They’re just abominable to read. And Freedom Downtime being close to truth? As close the The Matrix is. Once you’re inside the ‘hacker community’ you quickly learn that Kevin couldn’t do much of anything he was touted as being able to do and all he really could do was social engineer.

No shit, you stupid kike cunt. What do you think the whole point of the legal system is? I’ll bet that dumb, fat asshole won’t be stealing a dead baby’s personal identification anymore! And if it was why didn’t they give the group any mention?

Apparently magazine does not want to give any credit where credit is due. Thomas Icom brought up the issue several months ago that was hurting for articles and would like to publish TJ3 in the magazine.

We said fine, let them publish the article, it had been out for a year already. We did not expect them to strip out the group credits in the article and copyright notices on our schematic GIF. For us now it’s a mute point, in the future we will only allow magazines to publish our work on the basis that they will give credit where credit is due and will not allow magazines to publish our works without a written agreement to do so.

I think this is very slimy of them. See this ad in Vol. We’ve received several small lists and one huge one for Mastercard. Meanwhile here’s a small sampling. You may do this under two conditions, no editing and you must not sell any items.

See the above example, outrageous! They really are a bunch of profiteering assholes. You have my permission to edit and sell these files as you wish. For me, Kevin Mitnick’s real crime is that he violated the original spirit of the hacker ethic.

It’s not okay to read other people’s mail, and to believe that software and other computer technologies should be freely shared is not the same as believing that it’s okay to steal them. The network of computers know as the Internet began as a unique experiment in building a community of people who shared a set of values about technology and the role computers could play in shaping the world.

That community was based largely on a shared sense of trust. Today, the electronic walls going up everywhere on the Net are the clearest proof of the loss of that trust and community. It’s a loss for all of us.

Thankfully, someone out there still “gets it. He kept doing the same thing over and over. I’d heard of him. As the editor of he had frequently defended Kevin Mitnick in public, arguing that Mitnick was simply a misunderstood and mistreated computer hacker who broke into systems out of curiosity.

There were no victims when a hacker stole software, he claimed. We could hear Corley chatting with someone about how to improve his public image. He could start by not touching little boys. He did not look very happy.

My feeling was he had caused a lot of grief for a lot of people, and he had incentive to stop. He had been to prison before, and he still continued. It wasn’t acceptable behavior, and something had to happen. It seemed throwing someone in prison is a very inelegant way of stopping someone.

I wish there were an elegant way. Maybe this is kinda childish but I called the front desk and connected to his room – woke his ass up at 6: Boy, was he pissed Especially after being up all night entertaining politicians.

I know, pretty infantile in the scope of things but I hope Kevin gets a good laugh. Ever wonder why people portray today’s “hackers” as mindless idiots? You can personally thank Manny Golddigger for that She is plotting revenge on Tsutomu Shimomura, the guy who finally caught her pal Kevin Mitnick, public enemy number one in the virtual world of computer networks.

Maybe now she can really screw him over. Something sexual, a ‘medium-term, possibly long-term’ revenge program. These sound like really nice people She was the kind of woman, she told me, who would go to Kansas City on a whim and concoct a scheme of disinformation.

She picked a man at random out of the phone book and circulated information suggesting he was guilty of a serious crime. She assured me she stopped before the man was arrested, but not before some information had circulated which could have been incriminating.

These sound like really, really nice people It is less certain that she could fire nuclear missiles. It is clear that she couldn’t do it using only a computer. Possibly, with her access to secret phone numbers, personal information, and security codes, she might have been able to trick the personnel at a silo into firing a missile.

I really hope that she couldn’t. That whole “launching nuclear missles by whistling over the phone” was actually based on security seminars giving by one of Mitnick’s hacker buddies. On an interesting note, I used to attend the Meetings in New York City during the early s when Blacklisted first came out and started going downhill.

Eric Corley was all perturbed about this ‘new’ hacker zine that was ‘copying’ him. It was then that I first saw a copy of Blacklisted I examined your periodical and had to bite by tongue because the first thought that popped into by head was ‘This blows away.

Corollary to the above: Real cyberpunks who have attended a meeting don’t go to them anymore. I did not know Mitnick or his partner, Depayne, prior to ratting them out. In my mind, which is all that really counts, I was acting strictly as a bounty hunter.

Mitnick is not a harmless hacker, he did in fact profit in many ways from his crimes. So he deserved it too. As far as Mitnick goes, well let’s just say he never did anything that wasn’t done before.

He never thoroughly impressed me as much as Poulsen, who taught me a great deal. You copy files from a large corporation and you don’t even get a hearing. I really want to hear the logic behind this. Mitnick was clearly a flight risk when he went on the run and assuming an alias, when he knew a warrant was out for his arrest.

Also, three time convicted felons do not usually qualify for bail. We had phone conversations and he was talking about this quite alot. If Markoff was his biggest enemy, as he certainly was, because he was definitely helping to catch him, and he was out to write a story about him, and he definitely wasn’t on his side I mean, if you’re on the run somewhere, and you know someone is after you, and they’re helping to try to find you, and you can get into their email system.

I’d like to know what person out there is going to avoid that temptation to look at the email. I know I certainly would BTW, Golddigger’s email contains pictures of naked boys. Apparently, it’s OK to invade other people’s privacy if your intentions are ultimately ‘good.

Corley’s entire defense of Kevin Mitnick was that he was only “doing good. Wasting time, money, and prison cells on harmless, nonviolent offenders while dangerous criminals go free. If you were to steal John Barleycorn personal identification, just like Kevin Mitnick did, he’d be running around screaming “Where’s the justice for me!?!

He has now been arrested six times in fifteen years. Each time, except for this last time, he was given a second chance to get his act together. He chose not too. It seems to me that he is an adult and makes choices.

He chose to keep breaking in to computers. He knew what the penalty was. So what’s the problem? Nowadays, he’ll probably be offered five times that for the ultimate movie – I’d say that he’ll be well-paid for his talents, what about you?

Believe it or not, some people have these things called “jobs” they have to get to. They can’t just sell old BBS files like you do. It not like they didn’t try, but most of the shit said about these phones has been blatantly wrong.

How many times has Joe Kiddie read btw, did Emmanuel touch your bum? For obscured reasons women feel safe around him. The Hacker Quarterly and detests being called by his real name so I always do so. His pseudonym is Emmanuel Goldstein.

The magazine is published in the zine format, not because it is edgy and hip, as its producers would like you to believe; rather, because it is written for and by 13 year old boys and faggots.

All the American transmissions are monitored and the data is passed onto the local competitors. Companies like IBM finally began to routinely transmit false information to their French subsidiary just to thwart the French Secret Service Manny Golddigger sure buried that one.

Boyfucker must be in full mental breakdown mode here. No “drug importer” has ever been giving the death penalty and “Amnesy International” is a complete joke that no properly educated person actually believes.

I wonder if Boyfucker will ever mention that our prisons are filled with thousands of non-U. And you thought Boyfucker actually looked out for the little guy! No evidence ever surfaced of any pay phone conversions, but none of this ever got printed.

Kevin’s name was enough to convict him, regardless of actual evidence. When he’d attempt to make a call from home, he’d get a message telling him to deposit a dime, because the telephone company switch received input that indicated he was calling from a pay phone.

You know a scam is getting way out-of-hand when the jerks running it can’t even tell the same lies! Isn’t this what the entire book, series of articles, and now the film are supposedly based on, what Kevin actually did? I was amazed by what he didn’t know.

But there was more that he did know, and had never talked about before. Kevin Mitnick admits it was him , “jsz,” and a few others in this interview. Demand that Manny Golddigger apologize to John Markoff at once!

Mitnick has been less than diligent in reviewing discovery materials. Kevin Mitnick intentionally delayed his trial to gain more time for his defense. Hackers regard him and others in situations similar to his as political prisoners.

He was using his hacking skills to obtain information illegally and then in turn sell it to the P. And that’s not the whole of it, he was up to his neck in hacking. The FBI isn’t interested in prosecuting curious hackers.

While I was working with them we passed up hundreds of potential cases. They were only interested in seriously criminal hackers. Mitnick was fully aware that what he was doing was illegal, and he knew they would fry him if he got caught again.

Frankly I think it’s great that people support him, and yes I think the sentence they want to give him is ludicrous. But, put it into perspective, Mitnick is a criminal, he is not innocent, and there is no justification for his acts.

If you want to admire and support him that is your decision, just do so understanding who he is and what he has done. Mitnick is not a saint. If you were to steal, and profit from, Eric Corley’s personal identification – you’d never hear the end of it!

He’d probably also want you in jail. Apparently, Kevin Mitnick’s legal team seems too stupid to understand modern computer technology. District Court Judge Mariana Pfaelzer expressed her disapproval with the request for a delay.

Gotta sell those T-shirts! They’re like five bucks a pop now, and that extra two bucks cuts into my Smash the State fund. Yes, there may be aspects of politics that touch on aspects of hacking, but quite frankly it’s not up to them to tell people how to think.

And apart from that The quality of their articles is in the toilet. That’s pretty much all there is to know. He wanted it shown when we were showing ‘Enemy of the State’ and when we told him ‘no, we’re showing enemy of the state then, we’ll show it tomorrow’ he got all huffy and bailed.

Then when we went to show it the next day, we couldn’t find it. Guess he took his football and went home. But you didn’t miss anything. I actualy really was looking forward to seeing it at ToorCon 2 years ago, but afterwards I can’t figure out why.

It’s mainly 3 hours of Emmanuel and his self indulgant crap. Whoever made the wannabe ‘Michael Moore’ comment was spot on. I hadn’t been able to put my finger on it, but you pegged it. This show includes fundraising.

Gotta brainwash those young victims I have found that these members, including Emmanuel Goldstein aka Eric Corley are a bunch of self important people, who think their opinion is always correct.

I also, have not had one good experience with other members. Again, they refuse to believe they could ever be wrong, and speak in a condescending manner to all those not in the ‘clique’. Mod me down if you want, but this is a true synopsis of my experiences with the ‘hackers’.

Most of the stuff in is crap, especially the political articles. The articles in Phrack are a step above the few technical articles in these days. They could finally take a little break from rehashing Mitnick folklore and retro infosec concepts ‘OMG, some companies could still be vulnerable to wardialing!!

I’m a life time subscriber, but with some of the content anymore – especially the letters – just pains me to read it. Once in a while there will be a good ‘hacker’-worthy article. But most of the time it’s ‘how do I get around right-click suppression using Internet Explorer?

He also quit signing his name to them. Before, he wrote nearly all the stories. After that, it was all, ‘We here at Maybe it’s more professional, but to me, it took away all the personality and passion from the writing. Calling it Phrack-lite would be an insult to Phrack.

Did you know anything about the account and its owner? Did you check the volume and type of traffic that was on the account before you decided to run tarballs through it? Would it have deterred you to know how well connected he was with some of the top networking and security professionals working in the Bay Area at the time?

Were you surprised how quickly the FBI appeared at your motel while you were still downloading? Do your current security services customers know how sloppy you were when you were captured?

Shortly thereafter you were escorted out and you stuck around the front of the party where they had not the privileged to force you to vacate the area. Afterwards you engaged many involved in the charity event on twitter where you claimed to have been ‘in’ the party for over two hours, were called out and subsequently harassed those that did so.

Initially you seemed to just block those that had negative things to say about you, but it quickly turned into you calling some at work and harassing them. My question for you; As a felon, do you sometimes worry that playing games with other hackers will get you into trouble?

No, all he wanted to do was steal cellphone service and other services. He is not the Hacker Poster boy. He was treated unfairly in the courts and legal system. Because it appeared in the Associated Press, they have made it fact that he engaged in a multi-million dollar crime wave.

When in actuality he’s been indicted for things, that ahh Also note he talks about “cracking” the satellite system. That’s a long time, for somebody who didn’t steal anytbing, didn’t hurt anybody, just basically played around with computers and phones.

Which is very long time, and no end in sight. We also support the knowledge you were trying to get out before your site was shutdown. If enough people maintain pressure on the SPA and their tactics, they will wither away. It is their destiny.

It’s all selective enforcement spiked with greed, fear, and revenge. In other words, it’s not a pretty place to be. But the outcome of this battle is going to be significant. We wind up getting more support than ever before from people and places we never would have been in touch with ordinarily.

By attempting this on others, you’re opening up the same type of support for them. In other words, you’ll be making them stronger. You should have the ability to counter hate speech with words and logic, rather than resorting to desperate measures.

You need to be attacking the cause of the problem, not just the symptoms. The assumption that shutting down sites is what hackers are all about simply strengthens the inaccurate mass media perception of us. Any idiot can use brute force to try and shut someone up.

Let’s hope that we’re all a few steps above that. The bigger they are the more they bitch Thank you for your support. When someone threatens us with a lawsuit, we print the letter and that usually stops it, or we just continuing doing it anyway because there is nothing illegal about it, and we don’t respond well to threats.

We didn’t respond very well to that either. With every issue we stockpile, we lose more space so we’d really like to get rid of the damn things. If they take up so much space, why not just put them on the Internet?

Oh, a few thousand or so a month They are just a little bit hypocritical! But equating copying an image on a website with theft only minimizes what real thieves do. Corley’s nom de guerre is taken from George Orwell’s Corley asserts that, like Orwell’s fictional Goldstein, he is being persecuted for trying to expose Big Brother–here, for Big Brother’s intrusion into the Internet.

Corley is the publisher of Hacker’s Quarterly, an online magazine for computer hackers. While the title sounds ominous, Mr. Corley claims that the magazine’s mission is to enhance the protection of confidential materials by exposing weak encryption methods before ‘crackers’ i.

As expounded in an CNN interview, Mr. Corley’s view is that ‘[w]hile you may resent the fact that some year-old from Topeka proved your security sucks, think of what could have happened had you not learned of this and had someone else done it instead.

Makes you wonder who the real “Big Brother” is, doesn’t it? Note they mention the character “Goldstein” is fictional. Also note the Freudian slip of mentioning a teenage boy. Or, let me rephrase. Her aspirations for him and his aspirations for her boyfriend.

Making that motd was probably the only moral thing B1tchez. What kind of sicko perverted lawyer Eric Grimm has a client who hits on little boys and does nothing about it? So we need a special amendment just to protect people from burning a piece of cloth, you know, it’s all symbolism.

It’s just little bits of data, you know “symbolism. Get over it asshole. I guess a sheriff doing what the people elected him to do is now too big of a problem for our big bad hackers. That’s what you hear.

On WBAI we don’t even really know how to do that Oh, I think they know exactly how to do that. Right now it’s taking place on computer hackers and other ‘adventurers’ who discover things that perhaps You know that knowledge is power and lot of people want to keep knowledge out of the hands of common people, like us.

We’re here to prove them wrong and also spread a little bit of that knowledge. What a bunch of hypocrites. The most important thing is to keep Golddigger’s six-digit a year salary going. Just don’t goto HOPE, it’s not like you’ll miss anything important.

It was tested earlier this year in Florida. And if that’s not biblical enough for you Quite honestly, I wasn’t too impressed with the overall quality of the talks that went on. Sure a few good moments arose now and then, but ladies and gentlemen, the majority of it was nothing to write home about.

I’m not saying I didn’t have a good time. Testing for specific antibodies is the final measure for eliminating unsafe blood. The risk for transfusion-transmitted infec- tious diseases can be estimated on the basis of screening level for each infectious agent and the prevalence rate of the infection in the donor population.

Estimates may also take into account the sensitivity, specificity, and window period of the testing assays. We report here an estimate of such a risk in 12 Central and South American countries and the cost of reagents required for the screening of these infectious diseases as a proxy of resources needed to reduce the risk.

We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in and in two countries of South America in , as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs.

Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus HBV ; two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus HCV ; and six screened some donors for syphilis.

An index of infectious disease spread through blood transfusion was calculated for each country. The highest value was obtained for Bolivia infections per 10, transfusions ; in five other countries, it was 68 to infections per 10, The risks were lower in Honduras nine per 10, , Ecuador 16 per 10, , and Paraguay 19 per 10, While the real number of potentially infected units or infected persons is probably lower than our estimates because of false positives and already infected recipients, the data reinforce the need for an information system to assess the level of screening for infectious diseases in the blood supply.

Laws to regulate blood transfusion practices have been enacted in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. However, donor screening still needs to improve for one or more diseases in most countries.

Information was obtained from Ministry of Health reports during technical meetings in which the situation of each country was reviewed or from an official report 6. All data are national except for Peru, where the information was for the city of Lima only 3.

Estimates are based on reported results of donor screening activities Assumptions For the best possible scenario, the following assumptions were made: In addition, results of the screening are influenced by the existence of an organized system of quality control and profi- ciency testing for the serology and for the evaluation of the diagnostic kits, which most countries lacked from to These specificity and sensitivity estimates fit well with those reported for second, third, and fourth generations of assays for HCV, HIV, and HBV, respectively, as mentioned in the package insert by two of the manufacturers of reagents used in the countries.

In the case of T. As no other country provided data on the fractionation index or data allowing one to be calculated, to put the countries in the same category, it was assumed that every blood donation corresponded to a single transfusion to one recipient.

Screening Coverage and Prevalence Rates Table 1 shows coverage of screening and prevalence rates of seropositive tests for specific infectious agents among blood donors reported by each of the 12 countries. Prevalence rates for HIV varied from 3.

The highest values of HBV prevalence estimated were Screening for syphilis was not complete in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Paraguay; prevalence rates were 5. In , Peru and Costa Rica had not yet introduced screening for T.

Estimating Potential Infectivity of the Blood Supply The probability of receiving an infected transfusion unit P R in each country was estimated by multiplying the prevalence of a specific infection by 1-level of screening Table 1.

For those estimates, the sensitivity and specificity of the different tests were taken into account. As the overall assumed sensitivity of HIV screening was The probability of getting a transfusion-transmitted infection P I was calculated as the result of the probability of receiving an infected transfusion 7Vol.

Estimates for transfusion-acquired syphilis are not presented because the infectivity risk depends on length of refrigeration Considering the low preva- lence rates and the incomplete- ness of HIV screening, only Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecua- dor could have missed detect- ing an HIV-infected transfu- sion unit; the probability of getting an infection in these countries was estimated at 0.

The highest risk for transfusion-transmitted infection was estimated for T. Table 3 shows estimates of the absolute number of infections that may have been induced Table 1. For calculations of P R and P I the prevalence was corrected taking into account the sensitivity of the screening.

Because Chile 6 and Peru 3 reported fractionation of blood units by 1. For the remaining countries, it was assumed that each donated unit was given to only one recipient. An index of infectious disease spread through blood transfusion was calculated by dividing the estimated total number of transfusion- related infections for any one of the infectious agents considered by the total number of donors.

This index indicates the health risks associated with blood transfusion and can be used as an outcome indicator to assess the cost-effectiveness of screening programs. The highest value for the infection spreading index was obtained for Bolivia, where transfusion-related infections may have occurred per 10, donations.

This was a result of a very high prevalence rate of antibodies to T. For most other countries considered, the index was 68 to infections per 10, donations. Due to low seroprevalence rates and good screening levels in some cases, the risk for transfusion-related infections was relatively low in Honduras nine per 10, , Ecuador 16 per 10, , and Paraguay 19 per 10, Table 3 also shows the ratio of number of infections per donation by country.

Using other tests might have increased the costs significantly for some of the infections. The cost of preventing the transfusion of one infected unit was estimated as [ no. This value represents the cost of detecting one unit positive for any one of the infections studied in each country by using one diagnostic test for each infectious disease.

For example, using two tests, one for antibody detection and one for antigen detection of HIV, increases costs. The wide variation of cost primarily reflects differ- ences in the prevalence of each infection and in the cost of each test in the countries.

Estimates of transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases, by countrya Infection Absolute no. For calculations of number of infections, the prevalence was corrected taking into account the sensitivity of the screening. Condition of the Blood Supply These estimates indicate that the condition of the blood supply in Central and South America is far from ideal.

Roughly, one case of transfusion- related infection occurs every 43 to 1, donations, varying with the infectious agent and the country. No serologic tests for T. Data on the prevalence of T. Data from a recent report of a survey among donors in Lima indicate a prevalence of 2.

If this is the real prevalence in the city, the number of tainted units transfused would have been 1, in , while the number of persons infected through blood transfusion could have been On the other hand, considering the number of donors and the prevalence of the infection in the 12 countries, if blood had not been screened at all, more than 35, infected units would have been transfused.

However, infections have different patterns of evolution. Limitations of the Data Difficulties and limitations of the use of public health data for policy decisions, even in industralized countries, are well recognized. Figures presented here were generated to establish an approximation of the problem by providing an overview of the risk of receiving Table 4.

All costs refer to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, unless otherwise indicated. However, this residual risk would be difficult to ascertain in most countries of Central and South America. Investigation of clinically identified cases after a transfusion, follow-up of recipients for seroconversion, and special laboratory studies detecting seronegative donors for missed infec- tions are laborious and expensive and could seldom be undertaken in those countries.

Another possibility would be studies that combine estimates of incidence rates of infection among repeated and first-time donors who seroconvert with estimates for the duration of the preseroconversion period for a specific infectious agent Those studies involved hundreds of thousands of donors and millions of donations.

To have incidence data on repeat donors, it is necessary to have a significant number of voluntary donors who will repeat donations. Therefore, it is unlikely that studies of that sort could be carried out in the countries mentioned here.

First, the population of the countries is much smaller; therefore, the number of donations is smaller. For example, in all Central America the number of donations is approximately , per year. Second, the number of repeat donations from voluntary donors is small.

The number of voluntary donors was also small in the remaining countries. In all countries of Central and South America, most donations come from directed donors, relatives or friends of patients. In addition, there is no national registry of donors to allow for follow-up.

Using incidence rates for first-time donors instead of repeat donors is not a solution because official incidence rates for HIV or other viruses were not available at the time of this study. The risk for transfusion-related infection could also be overestimated.

Recipients may already be infected. This is especially likely for T. Another source of overestimation is that only some of the cases detected by screening would be confirmed. However, as the primary function of blood banks is donor screening, seropositive donors for any of the diseases mentioned here are usually referred to specialized services or reference laboratories for confirmation of the results of the screening, and if results are confirmed, for treatment and counseling.

Results of this confirmatory serology are not often sent back to the blood bank, even when privacy concerns allow for it. Chile was the only country that reported results of confirma- tory tests for HIV: By these criteria, a recent study in Brazil suggested that only one out of five donors positive for T.

Establishment of a screening process in every country will depend on balancing the benefits and costs. Although costs for preventing transfusion of one tainted unit or preventing one infection seem high for some etiologic agents, they are not so.

In general, the risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion is not as high as that reported from some countries of Africa Since , donor screening has improved in several countries. Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela, for example, have made screening for HCV mandatory, and coverage for serology for that infection has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras.

Laws to regulate blood transfusion 11Vol. The figures presented, however, underline the need for improvement and stress the importance of an information system that allows assessing the level of screening for infectious diseases in the blood supply.

Universal screening of donors for HCV is still a priority in most countries, and increased donor screening for T. Continuous collection of the type of informa- tion shown here, which has only been partially available 1 , provides a baseline against which future achievements can be measured and is essential for obtaining the support needed to maintain or expand the screening of blood donors.

Linares J, Vinelli E, editors. Cruz Roja Finlandesa; Taller para el control de calidad de sangre en transfusiones: Taller sobre control de calidad de sangre en transfusiones: Simposio internacional sobre control de calidad en bancos de sangre del Cono Sur y de Brasil.

Ministerio de Salud, Chile. Pan American Health Organization. Health conditions in the Americas. Estimated risk of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus by screened blood in the United States. N Eng J Med ; The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections.

Hepatitis C virus six years on. Triagem sorologica ra o Trypanosoma cruzi entre doadores de sangue do Brasil central. Bol Oficina Sanit Panam ; Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations.

Ann Intern Med ; A prospective study of post-transfusional hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus infection in post-transfusion hepatitis. An analysis with first- and second-generation assays. N Engl J Med ; The control of Chagas disease.

National Institutes of Health. Infectious disease testing for blood transfusion. NIH Consens Statement ; Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease: American trypanosomiasis as a public health problem. Chagas disease and the nervous system.

Clinical course of primary HIV infection: Residual risk of transfusion associated hepatitis. National Institutes of Health; Incidence of infectious disease markers in blood donors, implications for residual risk of viral transmission by transfusion.

Jan ; Bethesda MD: National Institutes of Health; Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; Epidemiology and prevention of transfusion-associated human immunodeficiency virus transmission in sub- Saharan Africa.

The best-documented example of ocean caliciviruses causing disease in terrestrial species is the animal disease vesicular exan- thema of swine VES 1. Feline calicivirus the only member of the group with a seemingly ubiquitous and continuous terrestrial presence also appears to have ocean reservoirs 2.

The source of caliciviruses causing gastroenteritis in humans is frequently shellfish, which do not always come from beds contaminated with human waste 3,4. The origins of hepatitis E are often obscure, but water is one suspected source 5.

The most recent emerging calicivirus is associated with rabbit hemorrhagic disease RHD , and although an ocean association has not been reported, the agent readily moves between continents and crosses ocean channels 6.

Finally, the only reported in vitro isolation and sequential propagation of a calicivirus patho- genic for humans is a virus residing in the sea 7. The Caliciviridae are divided into five groups, tentatively designated distinct genera, on the basis of sequence relatedness and genomic organization 8.

Four are known human pathogens—Sapporo, Norwalk-like small round structured viruses, hepatitis E, and the marine animal caliciviruses—while the fifth group, which includes RHD virus, is not yet proven to be a human pathogen. The human Sapporo viruses are more closely related to the marine caliciviruses than to the other human group causing gastroenteritis, the Norwalk-like vi- ruses.

On the basis of homology and genomic organization, RHD virus falls between these two groups. In addition, the genomic organization of hepatitis E is most closely related to that of the only other hepatotropic calicivirus currently described, RHD virus 8.

Many marine calicivirus strains in the tentative genus of VES virus-like caliciviruses have been passaged in vitro; their characterization Calicivirus Emergence from Ocean Reservoirs: Zoonotic and Interspecies Movements Alvin W.

Caliciviral infections in humans, among the most common causes of viral-induced vomiting and diarrhea, are caused by the Norwalk group of small round structured viruses, the Sapporo caliciviruses, and the hepatitis E agent.

Human caliciviruses have been resistant to in vitro cultivation, and direct study of their origins and reservoirs outside infected humans or water and foods such as shellfish contaminated with human sewage has been difficult.

Modes of transmission, other than direct fecal-oral routes, are not well understood. In contrast, animal viruses found in ocean reservoirs, which make up a second calicivirus group, can be cultivated in vitro.

These viruses can emerge and infect terrestrial hosts, including humans. This article reviews the history of animal caliciviruses, their eventual recognition as zoonotic agents, and their potential usefulness as a predictive model for noncultivatable human and other animal caliciviruses e.

Dozens of serotypes were described on the basis of serum neutralization tests; this antigenic complexity complicated serodiagnosis and ham- pered studies of effects on host species. The illnesses associated with two recently discovered viruses classified as Caliciviridae, hepatitis E virus and RHD virus, have altered the notion that caliciviruses produce only transient clinical disease but not death 1,9, The oceans are reservoirs in which caliciviruses are exposed in a water substrate to life forms from zooplankton to whales and in which they, like other RNA viruses, can amplify to very high numbers with variants occurring in every replicative cycle Such a varied replicative setting has served this parasite well.

With the right tools, evidence of previous infection with caliciviruses can often be shown in fish, avian, and many mammalian species, including humans 1. It is not known why some caliciviruses have become potential hemorrhagic agents associated with purpura hemorrhagica in aborted piglets 13 , neonatal hemorrhagic syndrome in pinnipeds A.

However, it is known that caliciviral diseases can be difficult or impossible to contain and eradicate. Pathogenic caliciviruses can be expected to continue emerging from the sea in unexpected forms at unexpected times in unexpected places.

Studying those that have emerged and are compliant to in vitro propagation can provide insights into those that cannot be cell-culture adapted and those yet to be discovered. History and Its Lessons The year history of the caliciviruses with ocean reservoirs can be divided into three periods: The first evidence of infection with caliciviruses of marine origin can be traced to A large herd of swine in Orange County, California, was being fed raw garbage collected from restaurants and institutions in the Los Angeles area.

When some animals became sick with vesicular lesions on the feet and nose, regulatory veterinarians were notified because vesicular diseases of livestock were reportable. The farm with sick swine and adjacent farms were quarantined for foot-and-mouth disease, and more than 19, head of exposed cattle and swine were destroyed and buried in quicklime The outbreak was contained.

One year later and miles to the south in San Diego, California, the second known outbreak occurred and was contained This time the disease was found not to be foot-and-mouth disease, because the virus would not infect cattle, but instead was described as a new disease of swine and was called VES All of these outbreaks in the s and s were shown by cross- infectivity studies to be caused by many distinct but related VES virus strains.

The embargoes placed on raw California pork were successful in containing VES within California until That year, a passenger train between San Francisco and Chicago served California pork and discarded the raw pork trimmings into the garbage in Cheyenne, Wyoming; the garbage was fed to swine subsequently redistributed by auction sale yard.

For the first time, the federal government, rather than just the California state government, activated eradication and quarantine measures against VES, including enforcement of federal laws requiring garbage to be cooked before it was fed to swine.

By , the last reported outbreak of VES had been contained, and the disease was said to have been eradicated. In , VES was declared a foreign animal disease, even though it had never been reported outside the United States Forty years later, the natural history of this calicivirus still contained few details.

Its origins were not known but were said to have been de novo or from some unknown wild animal reservoir, which was extensively sought but not 15Vol. Swine were the only naturally infected host species; no evidence of human infection had been observed Control of VES had been a notable success story for regulatory veterinary medicine in the United States; within 24 years of its discovery as an entirely new disease, it was said to have been eradicated Internationally accepted animal disease diag- nostic tests using swine, horse, and bovine infectivity profiles for vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth virus, and VES virus were used routinely; VES virus did not infect cattle, whereas the other viruses did 14, The movement of a member of the Caliciviridae from ocean reservoirs to terrestrial hosts changed the understanding of the natural history of a virus thought to be host specific and eradicated 1,15, The first virus isolate from a pinniped occurred in Should the VES virus reappear, its status as a foreign animal disease would mandate immediate implementa- tion of eradication measures; eradication was viewed as an impossibility because of the wide range of reservoirs for VES virus, both migratory and ocean species.

The 13 marine caliciviruses serotypes TCID50 vs. By , 11 species of pinnipeds and cetaceans of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea monk seals, California sea lions, northern sea lions, northern elephant seals, northern fur seals, walrus, gray whales, sei whales, sperm whales, bowhead whales, and Pacific bottlenosed dolphins were known to be susceptible to calicivirus infection, as was an ocean fish, the opaleye perch Girella nigricans Further- more, in many instances, the virus had crossed the intertidal zone to infect terrestrial species On the basis of these data and the established ocean ranges of known calicivirus host species, the shores of Mexico, the United States, Canada, Russia, Korea, Japan, China, and perhaps others bordering the North Pacific Ocean had been regularly exposed to large numbers of marine caliciviruses with unknown host ranges and tissue trophisms By this time, type-specific neutralizing antibodies to two of four serotypes tested were reported in human patients in the United States Cumulatively, these findings lead to the conclusion that fish and perhaps other ocean products provide a vehicle for transmission of these marine caliciviruses to terrestrial animals.

The magnitude of potential exposure to marine caliciviruses from the sea is substantial. Although marine mammals were often infected, fish and fish products were more likely to transport the virus from sea to land In contrast to the to introductions of VES from raw fish, the rapid and uncontrolled spread of VES virus throughout California after and then across the United States in was a pig-to-pig cycle through raw garbage feed.

However, new virus serotypes were also introduced through feeding raw fish scraps to swine 1, That VES was not a species- specific disease became accepted, but the possibility of human infection, although suspected 22 , was largely untested.

A calicivirus isolated from an opaleye perch and designated SMSV-7 produced fulminating VES in exposed swine and spread from pig to pig by contact transmission A reptilian calicivirus Crotalus-1 was isolated from three species of snakes and one species of amphibian 24 and from three species of marine mammals whose population distributions spanned the North Pacific from Mexico to the Bering Sea 1.

Parasitic nematode larvae from California sea lions in San Diego, California, were used to infect opaleye fish with calicivirus SMSV-5 ; when the fish were killed and fed to Northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea 30 days later, the seals developed vesicular disease, and the virus was recovered from the lesions 1.

The caliciviruses were reisolated 60 days later in mammalian cell lines Feline calicivirus was shown to cause disease not only in dogs, but also in seals on the basis of 17 of 20 adult sea lions having neutralizing antibody to FCV-F9 with titers of 1: Only 11 of 20 of these sea lions had neutralizing antibody to a sea lion isolate, SMSV titer 1: This demonstrates a probable feline calicivirus ocean presence in California sea lions 2.

In swine, a so- called mystery pig disease porcine respiratory reproductive syndrome was reproduced in pregnant sows in with a three-plaque passage purified cytolytic calicivirus isolate from stillborn piglets with mystery pig disease A second calicivirus serotype isolated from the same piglets was the same as that isolated from walruses in 1.

A white tern Gygis alba rothschildi , a migratory sea bird sampled in the mid-Pacific French Frigate Shoals , had a blistering disease caused by a calicivirus In the first fully documented human case of clinical disease caused by a marine calicivirus, SMSV-5 was isolated from blisters on the hands and feet of a patient 7.

A second, less well-documented, case involved a field biologist who was handling sea lions and developed severe facial blistering. An untypable calicivirus was isolated in tissue culture Vero cells from throat washings 7.

Extent of Exposure The extent of human disease is not known because test reagents are not readily available and diagnosticians are not alerted to caliciviral causes of human disease, except for diarrhea and occasionally hepatitis.

However, evidence of human exposure was shown when serum specimens from normal blood destined for donor use were tested. To demonstrate that these reactions were not cross-reactions to the human Norwalk calicivirus antibody, serum samples from eight persons with Norwalk virus-induced diarrhea were also tested.

Both acute- and convalescent- phase serum specimens were tested by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay with the same SMSV antigens and Norwalk capsid protein Figure 1B, C, and D. Although cross-reactivity was not detected, the serum samples may still have been able to cross-react with the calicivirus causing hepatitis E or Sapporo calicivirus, which were not tested.

However, sera typed to all 40 marine caliciviruses reacted negatively when tested against Sapporo antigen data not shown. These results suggest possible human exposure and antigenic response to marine caliciviruses.

If that is not the case, such results present a confusing diagnostic picture of calicivirus exposure and diagnosis of human disease. A blood donor sera tested against a polyvalent antigen containing San Miguel sea lion viruses SMSVs 5, 13, and 17 purified by CsCl; B Eight acute- and eight convalescent-phase sera from a confirmed outbreak of Norwalk gastroenteritis tested against the polyvalent SMSVs 5, 13, 17 antigen; C The eight acute-phase sera from the same outbreak of Norwalk gastroenteritis tested in B also tested against the baculovirus expressed Norwalk virus capsid protein; D The eight convalescent-phase sera paired with the acute-phase sera See C tested as in C.

O pt ica l d en sit y Individual sera 17Vol. They can persist in nonlytic cycles in many reservoir hosts, and they have a wide diversity of successful antigenic types 1 more than 40 serotypes on the basis of virus neutralization, e.

Their cup-like surface morphol- ogy is characteristic Figure 2. Finally, they are zoonotic: No other virus has been shown to have its origins and primary reservoirs in the sea yet emerge to cause disease in humans.

To measure calicivirus adaptivity and preclude strong presumptions of host specificity on the basis of calicivirus type or species of origin, the following list of 16 hosts is given for a single virus serotype, SMSV The lists are still growing.

SMSV-5 can also persist for 60 days in shellfish, but infectivity has not been measured Feline calicivirus FCV-F9 has an apparent ocean presence among California sea lions and is not host-specific 2. All members of the family Felidae are susceptible to infection, not just domestic cats.

In addition, cheetahs are susceptible; the agent has naturally infected and caused disease in dogs and experimentally infected coyotes 28, Reports of human antibody against the feline virus suggest zoonotic potential for the feline calicivirus Tissue Trophisms The broad host range and diverse mecha- nisms of transmission and survival of marine caliciviruses are expected of an RNA virus quasispecies If structural simplicity associ- ated with a capsid made up of a single protein species and replicative strategies conserved across rather broad tissue and phylogenetic distances is a measure, caliciviruses are primitive RNA viruses.

Caliciviral RNA replica- tive mechanisms are thus expected to generate numerous mutants perhaps as high as one to 10 per template copy 12 , which will come in contact with many pelagic and terrestrial biota. Opportunity exists to form clusters of virus adapted across a diversity of life forms.

Actual mutation rates have not been demonstrated for the Caliciviridae, but plaque-size reversion studies have found that the mutation rate for this phenomenon is one per replicates 14, In addition, the expected versatility from RNA virus replicative infidelity and the resulting successful adaptive mechanisms are manifested in the wide spectrum of calicivirus tissue trophisms.

Caliciviruses have the inherent potential and adaptive mechanisms to successfully parasitize essentially all organ systems of the many animal species that have been examined in detail. The Future Calicivirus disease manifestations in ani- mals will likely continue but will only become well defined with improved diagnostic means.

With cultivatable marine caliciviruses as models, the role of disease-causing caliciviruses can be further defined. Now caliciviruses infecting humans can only be visualized by electron microscopy or histochemistry but cannot be propagated in vitro.

Thus, miscarriage and birth defects in human patients, hepatitis other than Figure 2. Negative staining using phosphotungstic acid on a carbon-coated grid showing typical surface cup morphologic features as commonly seen by electron microscopy.

In the absence of data, extrapolating from cultivatable caliciviruses to predict future effects of poorly characterized caliciviruses should be useful, particularly when there is an urgent need to assess possible human risk.

The calicivirus implicated in RHD is a case in point for it might be expected to infect humans. An anecdotal account mentions a Mexican worker who developed antibodies to RHD while eradicating the disease in Mexico An Australian study designed to assess the risk for illness after RHD escaped from Wardang Island 32 examined a group of persons reporting exposure to rabbits or samples infected with RHD virus and reporting no known RHD virus contact from two Australian states with the greatest amount of RHD virus activity in rabbits.

Exposure was categorized by degree of skin exposure to infected materials. Date of first exposure was noted, but no cumulative exposure index was developed. Symptoms were assessed by recall of illness over the previous 13 months.

Because the RHD agent was in high security containment facilities for the first 3 months of the recall period and geographically confined for the following 3 months, that period was considered a low exposure period.

Because of the rapid spread of the virus in the two states, the last 6 months of the recall period were considered the high exposure period. The data Table 2 show the rate ratios for the occurrence of different illness in the two periods.

All rate ratios were considerably greater than 1. Because each group contained health histories for 3 spring months or 3 autumn months, 1 summer month, and 2 winter months, the data are seasonally adjusted; hence, winter illness does not explain the excess symptoms observed in the high exposure group, and RHD virus exposure remains a plausible explanation for increased disease incidence.

Yet, caliciviruses have been purified from infected organs to the limits of purity by physical means, and those preparations also cause RHD The caliciviruses purified by physical means cannot be proven to be free of Table 1.

Sapporo calicivirus Sapporo ; Group 3: Population incidence of rabbit hemorrhagic disease RHD virus for seasonally equalized periods July—December and February—July , derived from Mead et al.

If RHD is parvovirus-driven, extrapolation from what is known of other small DNA viruses suggests a rather stable genome and a reduced host range with less likelihood of new host relationships On the other hand, if calicivirus is the primary pathogen, the genomic infidelity that occurs during small RNA virus replication and the documented cross-species transmission of the cultivatable caliciviruses suggest that RHD might also move across species barriers 1, Adequate diagnostic reagents for epidemio- logic studies need to be made available; they include antigens, monoclonal antibodies, poly- merase chain reaction primer sets, and cDNA probes based on group epitopes.

In addition, biotype- or pathotype-specific reagents are needed to differentiate pathogenic from non- pathogenic infections. The future also holds the confounding problem of vaccines.

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With Skype for Windows 8, I cannot see group members when group video calling. When calling only one person, the buil in camera looks fine. I cannot find anything in Skype community that covers this issue. You can install the desktop version using this msi-installer for the currently latest Skype.

My wife and I have enjoyed the use of your products for years now and are big supporters. I recently purchased the 64GB playbook for my and she loves it. When we saw ccure recent playbook sale we decided to purchase another unit.

We were excited about the purchase and couldn’t wait for the arrival. I have been such a advocate of your product I was able to get additional family members to purchase playbooks during the sale. Since that time I have learned there orders were cancelled due to high risk transactions without any kind on notification that it was cancelled.

Needless to say they were not happy. I then learned that in order for their orders to be fulfilled they needed to send cheque by mail. I cannot for the life of me understand why this would be I started to become concerned about my order as it has not arrived yet.

I see that it says shipped, but no shipping details. I have tried sending two emails to the address listed on the webpage over the past 3 days and not received one response. I have also spent a total of two 9000 in the last 2 days trying to reach customer service by phone.

Every time I call that call becomes disconnected tried from several different phones. I truly have been a BIG advocate, but starting to lose that faith Thanks and please let me know how this issue can be resolved.

Be a Shepard and not an iSheep. Hi guysI have just purchased an htc one from having an s3. I have been playing on the phone all night and just cant get on with it. What options do i have?

Can i exchange for another phone As long as your in the 7 working day cooling off period Synth mentioned you sohuld eb able to head back to the store and get it changed over there and then. Any advice or reference to an existing link, on restoring or preparing an imac mid OS Mountain Lion, before selling or passing on to another person.

No matter how the appointment is created within the calendar it is not being saved. I’ve seen one other person having this issue on another forum; however, there were no solutions posted yet. Thought I’d try this forum. Those surveys are about the reps themselves.

If you like the rep, but don’t like verizon and slam the survey, all you’re doing is making that rep look bad, and absolutely nothing else is accomplished. You can rate the rep, but at the end you do have an option to speak your mind.

That’s what it is there for Very unhappy with subscription sent secure email about issue last month house no help sent another over this weekend and canceled subscription due to score watch never working.

I dont ever get score watch updates and i have 8 accounts and they are all active accounts that report different balances each 9000. My wife’s score watch works perfect but mine nope.

She cancel hers also since mine ising working. Score watch is a rip off and I will be cancelling my subscription. I haven’t received any updates in three months, and during this time I’ve opened a new credit card and leased a car and never received any updates.

If you are considering paying for this service, I can say it’s a hit or miss. Some people get upadtes, some don’t. Save your money and just get the credit reports when you need them or purchase a monitoring service from experian or transunion.

I, like many on here, have had numerous problems with my Charge. I cannot have a conversation longer than 3 minutes because the person I’m talking to will suddenly not be able to understand me or they cannot hear me at all or my phone just drops the call.

Those are daily issues. I would say times a week my phone has absolutely no service and I will need to restart it or it will freeze and I am forced to pull the battery. There are times I cannot get 4G, 3G or wifi unless I restart the stupid phone.

There are days I restart my dang phone at least 6 times! I went to Verizon today about my phone issues. They are sending me another phone miles Charge and tried to give me some spiel about the phone isn’t their responsibility and Verizon just provides the phone service.

First of all, I cannot utilize the service properly with my current phone because of the above mentioned problems. Second, if you are going to sell a phone in your store with your company’s name at the top, have the cojones to stand behind the product.

I was polite, but firm and the most I got out of the representative I talked to was a blank look and a lot of “okay”. I explained that I work in emergency services, have a toddler and I’m pregnant.

I have to be able to use my phone if I need it. Again, the response was a vacant look and an “okay My husband is about ready to switch companies when his contract is up in July. If that happens, I will follow suit in March next year.

I really hope the rep I house to today is an anomaly and Verizon has not gone this far downhill in their customer service. I am less than thrilled that I am getting another Charge, but we shall see what happens.

I’m mostly disappointed that the representative did not even act as if he wanted to help. He mostly just wanted to get rid of an unhappy customer and that is no way to do business. When a customer leaves unhappy, they tell everybody.

I have always defended Verizon to others who have had issues, but maybe I was mistaken. I was content with it, but even happier after customizing it. Sometimes the issue is with the bloatware that VZW forces on the phone that you cannot delete.

Hi I recently purchased all the downloads for skyrim from the playstation network online. I have tried everything from on the forumsdownloaded it 7 timesreinstalledwith patched version 2. I called the support number who where very rude, first offered day turn around on call back when i said was software happy with this the Team leader Matt said that he could software days to call me if Iwanted to get pushy about it.

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The number I called was the The Team leader of the whole centrethere is named Matt and he is the rudest person I have ever met. I shall be contacting my local Ombudsman and taking this matter further. All I asked for was a working copy of what I purchsed or my money back.

I house been repeatedly not called back at allput on hold for over 2 hours. I will be telling everyone I meet for the rest of my life about this horrible experience. I can tell you that all the Skyrim DLC packages were fine – data integrity wise, upon release.

Make sure you have minimal junctions and no line hiss or crackles. I cannot talk to anyone at Comcast because there is a constant outage in our miles so the automated system ccure connect software to a “person”.

Had to call from another phone last week and spoke to a really nice person at a call center. They couldnt help because of the “outage” that has been going on for 4 weeks. I am so frustrated with this crappy service. Info you should post to get help.

Don’t know if it was the update, but had no problem printing the same file before the update. Have windows xp pro. Another person in my office having same problem. Having the exact same issues hear.

Haven’t been able to find a fix for it anywhere. It has the be the last update. Going to check if I can roll back to the previous update. The more I use Apple, the more I dislike it! I have other questions elsewhere in the community about Apple’s overbloaded improvements of the OS It always crashes ccure “Sticks”Now for the another 1 of the improvements in OS I tried opening the zipped file 3 times, but it didnl;t seem to open.

Can Miles do this in the “free world? One getting to be even more unhappy with Apple user!