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04.03.2018 – Also numbers can be entered in scientific notation. This is the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle with sides of length x and y, or the distance of the point x,y from the origin.
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1. 6Defend what you create. Sets the graphic mode:
2. 4 If you need the separate libraries you can do a make x11basic.http://softik.org/www-netemx-pl-szybkie-pobieranie-torrentowdark-energy-screensaver-7/ http://softik.org/www-softpir-com-themes-gadgets-2012-7/The MS-Windows version makes use of this. Alphanumeric string information in a DATA statement need not be enclosed in quotes if the first character is not a number, math sign or decimal point.
3. 3 How can one see what kind of content a variable can store? http://softik.org/zte-speed-user-guide/ http://softik.org/zte-speed-update/Keyboard will show or hide the on-screen virtual keyboard. Hal ini memungkinkan untuk trek tertentu untuk diredam dan memberikan kontrol dinamis atas volume, pentahapan dan aspek lain dari setiap lagu.
4. 10 EXIT leaves the current innermost loop immediately. These variables typically are used to save configuration information.Dr web keyget 1 4 2011 pcThat is the value obtained by changing the sign of the imaginary part.
5. 2 Returns the Cosine of the expression in radians. This means, only one procedure can be scheduled for trigger at the same time.
6. 5 The rest of the procedure determines the task the subroutine must perform.
7. 3 It is also important to tell XBasic what sort of data you want to store. COLOR sets the foreground color and optionally the background color for graphic output into the graphic window.
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Doctor Web is the Russian developer of Dr. Your browser is obsolete! The type parameter determines, which algorithm is to be used. Under Android you will not have to care about the individual components of XBasic, because there the XBasic app comes with a little IDE Integrated Development Environment which handles the terminal, editor, loading running and the compile process for you. Accessing the content of an array is done through the operatorwith the index inside the parenthesis; the indexing of the first element is 0: Strings are automatically elastic, meaning they automatically resize to contain whatever number of bytes are put into them. Calculates the factorial n!
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For IT service providers Dr. This she-bang line ensures, that your UNIX will invoke xbasic to execute your program. Moreover, you will need to change the permissions of your XBasic program, e.
After that your program can simply be executed from your shell and the interpreter works in the background like shells do. You need not even use the extension.
This installs XBasic 11 2. All files you need for using XBasic are located there: Choose “XBasic” from the start-menu: Opens and rund the demo. Opens the XBasic interpreter.
Click with the right mouse button on your desktop. Choose “new” from the context menu that appears; this will create a new icon on your desktop. The context menu of this icon has three entries “Execute”, “Edit” and “View docu” which shows the embedded documentation, if any ; a double-click executes the program.
Create a file containing your XBasic program. This file should have the extension “. Double-click on this file then invokes XBasic, to execute your program. The compiler has a rudimentary graphical user interface, which will ask for the.
To fix this, ANSI. SYS has to be installed and switched on for the console windows. Instructions how to install ANSI. SYS can be found on the internet. Clicking on an icon of a XBasic program as well opens this context menu with following options: Execute will invoke the XBasic interpreter to execute your program.
The same happens, if you doubleclick on the icon. Edit invokes notepad, allowing you to edit your program. View docu opens a window which shows the embedded documentation of your program if there is any.
Embedded documentation within a. A more recent version usually can be found in the files section of the project pages of X11Basic on sourceforge. Watch out for a file named XBasic Download this file to your Android tablet or smartphone and install it, allowing installation of apps from other sources in the systems settings before if necessary.
The app registers itself as a viewer to. So from any file browser, basic programs can be started with a single touch. If you open the XBasic app itself, you can directly type in commands with the virtual keyboard.
Pressing the MENU button gives you the option to load and run BASIC programs, stop and continue execution, open the keyboard if its has vanished from the screen and compile basic programs into bytecode.
The virtual machine is integrated, so bytecode compiled code can be run. Standard output is rendered directly into the graphics screen with a VT compatible terminal emulation. Not all graphics features have the same result than on a XWindows installation, the whole screen counts as a single fullscreen window.
Finally shortcuts to XBasic programs can be placed on the desktop, so they can be started with one click. Also XBasic is registered as a method to open files from a file browser.
A small selection of example programs is included in the Android package. If you like to have some fun with a game, try ballerburg. Selecting the XBasic app again will resume it. About shows information about the current version of XBasic, news and impressum.
The selected program will be loaded into memory. A program eventually stored there before will be overwritten. You can display the sourcecode by entering LIST.
Run will simply start the execution of a program which has been loaded before. New will delete the currently loaded program from memory. Keyboard will show or hide the on-screen virtual keyboard.
The preferences can be set as follows: Show splash screen at XBasic start-up. This can be switched off here. When the screen will be partially covered by the on-screen virtual keyboard, you can specify which portion of the screen should be visible: The top portion, bottom portion, the whole screen but scaled to fit, the portion with the text cursor in it, or the portion with the mouse pointer in it.
Show title This can be switched off here. Show status bar This can be switched off here. Show keyboard at start This can be switched off here. Editor will execute a 3rd-party text editor e. Ted or Jota or Text Editor if installed to edit the program currently loaded.
If no program was loaded, the default file name will be new. After having saved and closed the text editor, the modified program will be automatically reloaded into the XBasic interpreter.
Compile will compile the basic source code into bytecode which can be executed about 20 times faster but cannot be edited or merged anymore. The bytecode will be saved with.
Help will open a window in which you can search the command reference. Quit will terminate the XBasic interpreter. Editing a program If you want to edit an existing program, do following steps in this example, the editor used is TED, but it works similar with Jota or many other text editors.
The program gets automatically reloaded, 5. If you want to create a new program, follow these steps in this example, the editor used is TED: The editor will be excecuted with the default file name new.
If you have more than one editors installed, you will be asked which one to use. Inside the editor do a “Save As” and give it a different name, e. XBasic now reloads new. If you get an error when calling the text editor, you need to install one.
There are plenty around, e. Install them from the Android market. You can install multiple editors. Then you are asked which one you like to use every time you call the editor.
You can now select a program file either. If you touch the filename long you get another menu with advanced functions: LOAD — load the program. MERGE — merge the program to the one already loaded works only with.
These functions are here for convenience only. Running in the Background When a program is running and you press the home button, the program will continue to run in the background. If you select XBasic app again, it brings up the screen output.
When you rotate the screen the running program should continue to run. You can place an application shortcut on the home screen by simply pressing anywhere and hold for 1 second on the background of the desktop screen on Android 4.
You first are asked to place the shortcut somewhere on the desktop. The XBasic launcher then asks for a. Pressing this link will automatically load XBasic and the. Updates of example programs The XBasic app comes with a small selection of example programs.
If you want a specific example program be updated replaced with a potentially newer version, which has come with an update of the XBasic app , simply delete the file. It will be restored after the next execution of XBasic.
Was reported sometimes on Samsung Tabs, all Android versions e. Running the XBasic app, the screen output is not updating or refreshing while XBasic runs a program.
OFF Characters typed are not visible If the whole line appears after you pressed ENTER, but you like to see what you are typing, you need to modify the settings of the keyboard switch off auto-completion and anything like that, which may make the keyboard hold text back until you press enter.
The XBasic interpreter xbasic can be evoked with additional but optional command line parameters. It takes the following ones: No prompt is given and the input is not echoed back.
This is useful, if you want to run XBasic programs as a background service. Additional command line parameters for the framebuffer version If XBasic was compiled to use the framebuffer device for graphics output there are threee more options to control which framebuffer device is to be used, which mouse device and which keyboard-device: So if you want to draw to the LED matrix display specify this for graphics output.
Users of UNIX like operating systems are fine with every text editor. Simple ones like pico or nano will do. Users of XBasic under Android need to install a good text editor. Other text editors which might have been already preinstalled can be a source of frustration and trouble.
So if unsure, please installe one of the mentioned editors from the Android Market. USAGE you have installed more than one editor, this is no problem, you will be asked which one to use every time, the editor is invoked.
Besides from the basic editing features I recommend to use a text editor with syntax highlighting. XBasic can support foreign language characters. Such characters can be used in X11Basic string constants, but may not be used in variable names.
Currently only the standard output console supports the full UTF-8 character sets. Also a MS Windows port is available3. NEdit provides all of the standard menu, dialog, editing, mouse support, macro extension language, syntax highlighting, and a lot other nice features and extensions for programmers.
In short, it has everything you want to develop your XBasic programs. Unfortunately nedit does not support UTF If you like to use nedit as your favorite editor, a nedit.
This enables syntax highlighting for XBasic programs in nedit see fig. All you need to know is that there is the option to compile XBasic programs to bytecode which makes them run much faster. The Nirvana Editor with syntax highlighting for a XBasic program.
Advanced users probably want to deal with the bytecode files produced in the compiling process. For each compilation step there are separate programs which do it; namely: The idea is to increase the execution speed of XBasic programs a lot by compiling it to a bytecode, this still being portable.
The bytecode itself is interpreted by a bytecode interpreter also called a virtual machine. This virtual machine needs to be present on the target computer, and then all bytecode programs can be used there.
This way, the XBasic compiler need not deal with different target machine architectures, and also the bytecode can be run much faster than the interpreted BASIC source code.
The conversion to bytecode is a real compilation. The step to assembler or machine code is not far. As with JAVA, the bytecode is platform independent and can be run on any system, which has a virtual machine ported to.
Also one point to mention whether this is a feature or a disadvantage: Implemented with an additional macro translation step, the bytecode is in a way readable. Here is an example: This is bytecode made out of the XBasic lines: Of course you can include the quit command in your hello.
Now lets compile it: You can run this: Real compilation will need two more steps: If you have the gnu C compiler available you can compile it to an independent executable program called hello with: Your program can now directly be started with.
A XBasic program consist of a main program block and subroutines. The code in the main block drives the logic of your program. In a simple program this is all that is needed. In larger and more complex programs, putting all your code in the main block makes the program hard to read and understand.
Subroutines let you divide your program in manageable sections, each performing its own specific, but limited, tasks. The result of the expression will be stored under that name for further reference.
Each line of X11Basic code can contain exactly one command or one assignment or a comment. Here is a typical piece of XBasic code: In XBasic a single command may in very rare cases consist of more than characters e.
Therefor a possibility of splitting lines into two or more has been implemented. PRINT is used to generate basic output, e. Some basic formatting is possible.
Therefor the code is grouped into a block which should only be executed if the result of the expression after IF is TRUE this means, not zero. GOTO, despite its bad reputation [goto considered harmful] , has still its good uses.
Since no line numbers are used, you must use a label to define lines where the GOTO command can jump to. Variable identifiers names consist of alphanumeric strings. These identifiers are used to refer to values in computer memory.
XBasic will automatically know where to store the data and how to deal with it. It is also important to tell XBasic what sort of data you want to store.
You can have variables that store only numbers but also variables that deal with a character or a whole string, a line of text for example. The following line of XBasic code will create a variable called age for you and assign it the value of But there it is not used as an assignment operator but instead there it is treated as a comparison operator.
The interpreter distinguishes between them just by context. Well, you eventually will get used to it. Last to say, such an assignment will overwrite any old data that has been stored before in that variable.
Global variables can be modified from anywhere within the program, and any part of the program may depend on it. But there is one downside of global variables: The use of global variables makes software harder to read and understand.
Since any code anywhere in the program can change the value of the variable at any time, understanding the use of the variable may entail understanding a large portion of the program. They can lead to problems of naming because a global variable makes a name dangerous to use for any other local scope variable.
Also recursive programming is nearly impossible with only global variables, last but not least, the usage of procedures and functions becomes much more clear, if you are able to encapsulate all internal variables of that function and you do not bother outside of the functions scope if you accidentally use one of these internal variables somewhere else in the code, possibly altering the functions behavior.
Because of all this, XBasic also provides local variables, which live only within a certain function or procedure and their context. Local variables need to be declared with the command LOCAL inside the function od procedure where they belong to.
Outside this specific procedure or function they simply do not exist, or if a global variable of the same name exists, they refer to different contents. How can one see what kind of content a variable can store?
How does XBasic know? By the way the name of the variable has been written. To distinguish between different ways of data types XBasic appends a special typing sign as a suffix to the variable name to distinguish between several ways to store data in variables.
Variables without suffix are treated as real 64bit floating point variables. Pointers are integers, function calls are marked by. Logical expressions are also of type integer.
It is important that variables with a special suffix are different from those even if the rest of the name is identical without. Spaces are not allowed but underscores inside the variable name.
The variable name can be of any length. XBasic limits you only in the following ways: Avoid to name your variables like XBasic commands. It will work but it can cause troubles. The values indeed will be assigned, but you never can use the assigned values, since always the internal values will be used.
Valid variable names look like the following: Variable names and commands are case insensitive. These 64bit floating point numbers have a mantissa of of 52 bits and an exponent of 11 bits and a sign bit.
These numbers can represent 15 to 16 significant digits and powers of 1e to 1e Complex numbers consist of two 64bit floating point values. XBasic currently also support infinite precision integer numbers.
These numbers are stored in a variable size portion of memory, so that an arbitrary number of digits can be stored. However, calculation with big interges is slow and only a few built-in functions can be used on them.
A single “i” is always treated as a real variable name. If you want the imaginary unit, please always use “1i”. Integer numbers, with no decimal fraction or exponent, can also be in either hexadecimal or binary.
There is no length limit for a string other than the virtual memory of the machine. In other words a string is a collection of bytes of certain length. You can treat strings as arbitrary length of binary data if you need.
Strings are automatically elastic, meaning they automatically resize to contain whatever number of bytes are put into them. When a string resizes, its location in memory may change, as when a longer string is assigned and there is insufficient room after the string to store the extra bytes.
String constants are enclosed with pairs of “” double quote. A wealth of intrinsics and functions are provided to support efficient string processing and manipulating. There is a way to include special characters into string constants.
The usual way in BASIC is to split the string into sub strings and concatenate the parts during run time, like in the code fragment: While normal variables store a single value at a time, an array variable can store many values.
The values are accessed via the name of the variable and the appropriate indexes. The index or indexes follow the name of the variable between and. There is no limit on the number of indexes the dimension.
You can use as many as you like. Also there is no limit on the index values other than the index values have to be positive integer and that memory may limit the array sizes. XBasic arrays can contain variables of any data type, including strings.
All arrays, even multi-dimensional arrays, can be re-dimensioned without altering the contents. A special feature of XBasic is the implicit dimensioning of arrays and the existence of array constants.
You may define an array by using the DIM command. Arbitrary-precision arithmetic, also called bignum arithmetic, multiple precision arithmetic, or sometimes infinite-precision arithmetic, indicates that calculations are performed on numbers whose digits of precision are limited only by the 39 3.
This contrasts with the faster fixed-precision arithmetic, normally used. Infinite precision math is slow, and not all functions are available for this data type. Arbitrary precision is used in applications where the speed of arithmetic is not a limiting factor, or where precise results with very large numbers are required.
It is up to the user and straight forward to write routines for handling rational numbers using two big interges, numerator and denominator , and corresponding routines for adding, subtracting, multiplication and division of thouse fractions.
Multiple precision Irrational numbers using a floiting point representation are currently not supported. If somebody needs this, please let me know. The advantage is, that you can handle big integer numbers without loosing precision, as it is useful for cryptography and number theory.
Also rounding errors can be avoided by using infinite-precision rational number arithmetic which is not implemented by XBasic itself, but which could be realized using pairs of big integers.
Variables of either type may be used and mixed in expressions. They will be converted to big integer or from big integer to float or 32bit integers when needed. One should j ust be aware of the eventual loss of precision.
Here is an example how to use big number arithmetrics in XBasic to factorize a big number into its prime factors: Many other statements give a complete set of math functions. Most of these functions can work on different input data types.
Expressions are needed to calculate values. The simplest expression is a numerical or string constant. More complex expressions may contain constants, variables, operators, function calls and possibly parentheses.
The operators have precedence of the usual order and you can alter the order of operator evaluation using parentheses. Therefore a TRUE is -1, which means, that every bit is one. So the operators will operate on each of these bits.
XBasic recognizes the following operators, in order of falling precedence the precedence of BASIC operators affects the order of expression evaluation: In their unary form they are used out of the precedence orders.
Unary operators are always applied first, unless parentheses drive different calculation order. The actual implementation of the power operator always uses the pow function, which always treats all operants as real numbers.
The multiplication operator multiplies the operands. If any of the operands is an array then the result will be an array. The division operator divides the first operand with the second. If the second operand is zero then an error will occur.
The integer division operator divides the first operand with the second. The calculation is performed using integer numbers and the result is truncated towards zero. Bit-wise and logical NOT This unary operator calculates the logical negate the complement of the operand.
The calculation is done on integer numbers, thus the operand is converted to an integer value. The operator inverts each bit of the operand. XBasic does not have a separate type for logical values.
If any of the operands is not integer it is converted to integer value before the operation takes place. The operations are performed on each bit of the operands. Operators for Character Strings There are a few operations which can directly be done to character strings or string variables, using operators.
Rules for comparison of strings: Two strings are equal if all the characters inside are identical also spaces and punctuation marks. The comparison of strings with the greater and smaller operator works character by character until one of them is smaller or one of the strings ends first, this is the smaller one.
END To program like this can produce a really unreadable code. The memory for an array need to be declared before it can be used. This can be done with the DIM statement or by direcly assigning a value to the array.
Array constants The common way to assign data to a whole array is to put the input figures into list into square brackets which forms an array constant and assign this to an array variable like: So [1, 2, 3] is a row vector, and [1; 2; 3] is a column vector.
Now that you know how to define a simple array, you should know how to access its elements. Accessing the content of an array is done through the operator , with the index inside the parenthesis; the indexing of the first element is 0: This operator is like a wildcard; it tells XBasic that you want all elements of a given dimension or with indexes between two given values.
For example, say you want to access the entire first row of matrix a above, but not the second row. Then you can write: Now say you only want the first two elements in the first row.
To do this, use the following syntax: Some return a list, which can then either be used as a value for another array function, or assigned into an array variable. Functions are blocks of code that can be called from elsewhere within an expression e.
Variables are global unless declared local. For local variables changes outside a function have no effect within the function except as explicitly specified within the function. Functions arguments can be variables and arrays of any data types.
Functions can return variables of any data type. By default, arguments are passed by value. Procedures use the following format: The rest of the procedure determines the task the subroutine must perform.
For instance, the procedure progress , which shows a progress bar on the text console given the total amount a and the fraction b, can be called the following ways: The function is either a numeric or a string function.
A numeric function defaults to the floating point data type and needs no postfix. Functions use this format: A string function must return a string and a numeric function a numeric value.
The compiler will use the DEFFN expression as an inline expression and will not produce a function with a symbol name. This is a bit faster, but produces longer code. These variables should always be listed at the end of the parameter list in the procedure or function heading.
The difference between the two is that a call by value parameter gets a copy of the passed value and a call by reference does not. A VAR variable references the same variable that is passed to the subroutine.
The original variable will change when a subroutine modifies the corresponding VAR variable. In fact, both variable names reference the same piece of memory that contains the variable value. Internally, XBasic maintains a list of all variables.
Each entry in the list points to a memory location that contains the variable value. A call by reference variable points to the same location as the passed variable. Therefore, constants or expressions can not be passed to a VAR variable.
All though a copy of an Array can be passed to a subroutine by value, the functions cannot return arrays1. If a function needs to return information in form of an array, the return array sould be passed as a VAR parameter in the parameter list.
The return values can then be assigned to it inside the function. The following example shows a simple function, which searches a name in a given string array: Refer to the command reference on them.
But on occasion you may prefer a more elaborate form. For example, you may want to print financial quantities with two decimal places for cents and, possibly, with commas inserted every three digits to the left of the decimal point.
Or, you want to print the numbers in scientific notation. The result of the expression should be a number. The format string defines how you want your data to be formatted on screen.
The format string may be a string variable, a quoted string, or a more general string expression. All other characters are just taken as they are. The length of the format string defines the length of the output field.
Whatever is formatted, it will exactly take as many characters as the length of the format string. The most important special character in the format string is the symbol , which stands for a digit position to be filled with one digit from the number to be formatted.
The number is printed right-justified in this field. If the field is not long enough to print the number properly, asterisks are printed instead. If all you need to do is to print integer numbers in a column but with right-justification, then the preceding example will suffice.
Note that a negative number will be printed with the sign occupying one of the digit fields. With printing financial quantities it is conventional that the decimal points are aligned.
Also, you may want to print two decimal places for the cents even when they are zero. The following example shows how to do this. In order to print negative numbers and have the sign at a fixed position, the format string should start with a minus sign.
Also, the result is first rounded to two decimals. If the number is too long to be printed properly possibly because of a minus sign , asterisks are printed instead. It is always in the same position first in the field.
The separating commas are printed only when needed. You might find the latter useful if you are preparing a check-writing program. You can also format numbers using scientific notation.
Because scientific notation has two parts, the decimal-part and the exponent-part, the format string must also have two parts. The decimal-part follows the rules already illustrated.
The following example shows how. Notice that the last number cannot be formatted because the exponent part would have been , which requires an exponent field of five carets.
Notice also that if there are more carets than needed for the exponent, leading zeroes are inserted. Finally, notice that trailing zeroes in the decimal part are printed. In addition to the format rules explained above, XBasic offers another but different set of format strings.
Here are some examples: The standard is well explained in Wikipedia: Strings can be printed in the formatted field either left justified, centered, or right-justified.
As with numbers, if the string is too long to fit, then asterisks are printed.