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18.03.2018 – This reorganization led to two divisions of party education: In this work, we focus. The present arrangement has a directly elected president who serves for a maximum of two five-year terms; he is head of state.
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1. 7Islam and Judaism are also officially recognized religions; there are about 67, Muslims and 10, Jews.
2. 9 In discussing Romanian education, it is quite important to provide an overview of education before the democratic revolution in http://softik.org/ccleaner-64-bit-internet-explorer/Savings are deposited with the Loans and Savings Bank. The most common cause for VM-Exit during the startup of a virtual ma.
3. 9 All religious groups must register with the government. http://softik.org/adobe-photoshop-lightroom-3-4-fully-working97/Resources for education after the revolution improved overall and there was adoption of new curricula that was more democratic in focus.
4. 10 The projected population for the year was 18, There are over 2, production and credit cooperatives.Dr web security space 7 0 0 10200 rg softThis occurred once national production of personal computers began in Romania. The software installer includes 23 files and is usually about
5. 9 Xiaoming Li, and Zhenlin W ang.
6. 3 Mihail Kogalniceanu — 91a leading statesman in the early Romanian monarchy, inaugurated modern Romanian historiography. According to Migration Newsin the Romanian government discouraged illegal migration by preventing some 1 — 4 million Romanians from leaving to travel to EU countries on the grounds that they had insufficient funds, or could not prove that they were merely visiting abroad.
7. 4 Differing provisions from the publisher’s actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable. This was, in part, due to Ceausescu’s belief that study of the humanities was a waste of state resources and that intellectuals were not productive members of society like those trained in industry.
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Hardware-assisted virtualization also supports memory virtualization for. Workers who do not meet the conditions of duration of employment at retirement age are provided with social assistance. By the first half ofthe failure of the reformist government to bring about the promised economic recovery had led to widespread disenchantment. Which Windows OS versions does it run on? However, an uncertain economy means that maintenance for existing properties has been somewhat poor. Industrial development received about half of all investment during the — 80 period.
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The EU specified however that Romania’s accession could be delayed until if the reform of the judicial system failed and if the fight against corruption was not intensified. The Council for National Unity enacted a new constitution for Romania in November , and the document carried many of the hallmarks of Soviet-era constitutions, granting rights in some articles and revoking them in others.
In October , the constitution was revised, following a national referendum. The present arrangement has a directly elected president who serves for a maximum of two five-year terms; he is head of state.
The president, in consultation with the parliament, names the prime minister. The prime minister, in turn, chooses his governing body, which has to be approved by the parliament. The legislature is made up of two houses, the Senate, with seats one senator for , inhabitants , and the Chamber of Deputies, with seats one deputy for 70, inhabitants ; members of both bodies are directly elected on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms.
After the coup against Ceausescu, some 80 political parties appeared — some new; others, like the Liberals and the Peasant Party, revivals of prewar parties that the Communists had outlawed.
By , the NSF had split over the issue of whether or not to support Iliescu. Despite superficial political differences, all three parties are anti-Hungarian, anti-Gypsy, and anti-Semitic, as well as anti-democratic.
Victor Ciorbea, a trade union leader and former mayor of Bucharest, became prime minister, and Emil Constantinescu became president. At that time there were also 19 deputies with no political affiliation.
Romania is divided into 41 counties judete , as well as the municipality of Bucharest, which has separate status. Below the counties, there are three other categories of local authority: In the Ceausescu era the counties were administered by appointees of the central government, whose responsibility was solely to Bucharest.
The Iliescu government attempted to reshape local government, but most sources agree that the result was to further remove authority from the countryside. Much of Romania is deeply rural, with almost no contact between localities or with the central government.
As a result, prominent figures from all of Romania’s main provinces have pleaded for a more decentralized government system. To date, all 41 counties are led by a prefect who is appointed by the government.
The prefects respond directly to the Ministry of Public Administration. The law on reorganization of the judiciary established a four-tier legal system, including the reestablishment of appellate courts, which existed prior to Communist rule in The Supreme Court was reorganized under a separate law; its members are appointed by the president of Romania and exercise ultimate authority over all other courts in the country.
The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for a term of six years and may serve consecutive terms. Under the law, the courts are independent of the executive branch. The constitution vests authority for selection and promotion of judges in the Ministry of Justice.
Judges are appointed for life by the president upon recommendation from a panel of judges and prosecutors selected by parliament. Alongside this ordinary court system is a three-tiered military court system, which handles cases involving military personnel.
The Romanian armed forces have been reorganized in the wake of the revolution of — 90, which destroyed the Communist armed forces and security establishment. In , the armed forces numbered 97, active personnel, supported by , reservists.
There were 66, active personnel in the Army, 7, in the Navy, and 14, in the Air Force. The Army was equipped with 1, main battle tanks, four reconnaissance vehicles, armored infantry fighting vehicles, 1, armored personnel carriers, and 1, artillery pieces.
The Air Force was equipped with combat capable aircraft, including 25 fighters and 68 fighter ground attack aircraft, as well as 8 assault helicopters. Romania also had a paramilitary force of 79, members that consisted of 22, border guards and an estimated gendarmerie of 57, Romania participated in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and in peacekeeping or military missions in 10 other countries or regions.
Romania served on the UN Security Council from — The Romanian government has supported UN missions and operations in Kosovo est. Romania became a member of NATO in Romania is an applicant for membership in the European Union.
Before World War II, the economy was predominantly agricultural, with agriculture and forestry contributing As a result of the industrialization program of the Communist government, this ratio has changed greatly.
Within industry, structural changes reflected the government’s emphasis on the development of heavy industry, particularly machine-building, as opposed to consumer goods. The relative neglect of the agricultural sector, in addition to peasants’ resistance to collectivization, resulted in agricultural difficulties, including shortages.
The basic organization of economic management in Romania was highly centralized, like its original Soviet model, with few of the modifications introduced elsewhere in Eastern Europe. During the late s and in the s, the continued emphasis on industrial expansion and consequent neglect of agriculture led to food shortages and rationing.
Romania’s economic problems in the s were exacerbated by the government’s program to reduce foreign debt: In addition, two extremely harsh winters and resulted in widespread power shortages and loss of production.
The transition to a market economy also proved extremely painful. At the end of , GDP had fallen Inflation, however, under new government restraints, moderated to Despite an austerity budget for , inflation increased to In July , a stand-by agreement was signed with the IMF.
Romania’s macroeconomic performance improved dramatically in the 21st century. Inflation has decreased steadily over this time period, to reach single digit values at 9. This growth of the economy can be attributed to several factors.
First and foremost, household consumption has expanded radically, fueled by higher real wages and remittances sent from people working abroad. Investments are another factor that contributed to this growth, peaking in with the acquiring of Petrom the national oil company by the Austrian OMV.
Exports improved annually at double digits, although strong internal demand translated into higher imports. Today, Romania boasts a technologically advanced market economy, a diverse and dynamic economic base, agricultural self-sufficiency, and a strong will to sustain the present economic boom.
The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars.
It was estimated that agriculture accounted for Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings.
It was estimated that for the period to household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 2. It was estimated that in about Romania’s labor force in was estimated at 9. As of , agriculture accounted for Unemployment was estimated at 6.
The Romanian economy is in the process of privatization. Private firms accounted for However, the government was still prominent in the large industrial sector. Labor legislation adopted in guarantees the right of private sector employees to associate freely, organize and join unions, bargain collectively, and carry out strikes.
In , there were about 18 nationwide trade confederations plus smaller independent unions. Unions are permitted to strike, but only after all attempts at arbitration have failed and a hour advance notice is given to employers.
However there have been complaints that the courts are biased towards ruling strikes illegal. Also, while the law protects the right to bargain collectively, contracts arising from collective bargaining have not been consistently enforced.
Most employees work a five-day, hour week with overtime pay rates for weekends, holidays and work over 40 hours. Children under the age of 16 years are not permitted to work, although year-olds may be employed with parental consent.
Minors are also banned from working under hazardous conditions. However, child labor remains a problem in Romania. Neither the government nor industry has the resources to enforce safety and health standards in the workplace.
Although under Communism the emphasis had been on industrialization, Romania is still largely an agricultural country. The government began forming collective farms in and had largely completed the collectivization process by By , of a total of 15,, hectares 37,, acres of agricultural land, The socialized sector consisted of 3, collectives, state farms, and farming mechanization units by Average farm size for private producers that year was 2.
In , Romania had 4,, agricultural holdings, the highest in the European Union. Grain growing has been the traditional agricultural pursuit, but the acreage has been reduced since World War II, and more area has been assigned to industrial and fodder crops.
In , Romania produced an estimated 57 million liters of wine. Romania has some 4. Animal production in Romania has developed somewhat more rapidly than crop production. In view of the initially low level of Romanian livestock production, development has been slow, however.
The major reasons for the inadequate increases had been lack of economic incentives, insufficient fodder, and inadequate shelter. Since the overthrow of the Ceausescu regime in , privatization of much of the grazing land has begun.
In order to improve livestock raising, the government continues to stress agricultural modernization. Livestock productivity during — 04 was The livestock numbers in thousands for were cattle, 2,; hogs, 6,; sheep, 7,; and chickens, 87, After several years of livestock reduction, the hog and poultry inventories rose at the end of , due to increases in the private sector.
Sheep numbers have dropped because of exports. State farms were also forced to cut their flocks due to reduced grazing land and financial difficulties. Production of livestock food products for consisted of , tons of meat, 5,, tons of cow’s milk, , tons of sheep’s milk, 37, tons of cheese, , tons of eggs, and 7, tons of butter.
Romania lost an important fishing region and nearly all its caviar-producing lakes with the cession of Bessarabia to the USSR in But the Black Sea, the Danube and its floodlands, as well as other rivers, lakes, and ponds, are favorable to the development of the fishing industry, which expanded rapidly during the early s.
In , the total catch was 19, tons, as compared with 95, tons in and 16, in In , forests covered 6. Insects, air pollution, and fires are the main causes of tree damage. Roundwood production in was estimated at 17,, cu m million cu ft.
Domestic lumber production is estimated at 5 million cu m million cu ft with more than half coming from small factories. Forestry accounts for 3. Between and , , hectares 1,, acres were reforested.
After the collapse of the Communist regime, domestic demand, exports, and reforestation plummeted. During — , some 15, hectares 37, acres were annually reforested. Since trade liberalization in , Romania’s wood industry has expanded; there are nearly 7, small and medium sized firms.
Romania’s production of metals, industrial minerals, and mineral fuels was mainly of regional importance. The country is a producer of aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, steel and ferroalloys.
Production of mined iron ore gross weight totaled , tons in Mined copper production gross weight totaled 21, metric tons in Bismuth metal output in was estimated at 40 metric tons in , while gold mine output metal content in that year came to kg.
Silver mine production metal content totaled 18 metric tons in Among industrial minerals in , Romania produced barite, bentonite, diatomite, feldspar, fluorspar, graphite, gypsum , tons , kaolin, lime 2.
Metals and metalworking in the region were well documented by Roman times, when Romania and Bulgaria, respectively known as Dacia and Thrace , were important sources of base and precious metals.
Gold and nonferrous metals mined in the region remained attractive investment opportunities. Although Romania is the largest producer of oil in Central and Eastern Europe, it is a net importer of oil.
The country also dominates the downstream petroleum industry in Southeastern Europe. As of 1 January , Romania had proven oil reserves estimated at million barrels. Although Romania’s oil production averaged an estimated , barrels per day in , domestic demand for that year averaged an estimated , barrels per day, making the country a net importer, that year averaging , barrels per day.
Romania is also the region’s largest producer of refined petroleum products. Of the 11 refineries located in Southeastern Europe, 10 are located in Romania. Romania, as of 1 January , had proven reserves of natural gas estimated at 3.
In , natural gas production totaled an estimated billion cu ft, while demand that year came to an estimated billion cu ft, thus requiring imports totaling an estimated billion cu ft.
In , Romania had recoverable coal reserves estimated at 1, million short tons. As with oil and natural gas, Romania’s demand for coal outstripped production. In , demand was estimated at Imports that year were estimated at 2.
Romania’s coal production consists of low-quality brown coal lignite , while imports consist of anthracite for use in thermal power plants. Romania’s electric power is mostly generated by conventional thermal fuel plants, followed by hydroelectric and a single nuclear power plant.
In , Romania’s electric generating capacity came to Production in totaled Consumption of electricity in was Romania’s Cernavoda nuclear plant has one operating reactor.
However, a second reactor is to start generating commercial power in Industrial development received about half of all investment during the — 80 period. As officially measured, the average annual growth rate in gross industrial production between and was The next year, industrial production increased by 3.
In , it increased by 9. In , industrial production increased by 9. Industrial production picked up after Romania began to recover from its recession in , and in , the industrial growth rate was 6.
Key industries in included textiles and footwear, light machinery and automobile assembly, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, and petroleum refining. While in all of Romania’s car manufacturers produced 68, automobiles, by , Dacia alone produced 94, While some privatizations have been plagued by corruption accusations, and while some of the newly privatized companies are not yet economically viable, the rest have benefited from switching leadership.
Some of success stories include the privatization of Dacia Romania’s main car manufacturer , and of Petrom the national oil company , which were acquired by Renault and OMV respectively; the privatization of the bank sector has also been hailed as an important step towards a functional market economy — BCR and CEC, two of Romania’s largest banks, are to be fully privatized by The Romanian Academy, founded in , has sections of mathematical sciences, physical sciences, chemical sciences, biological sciences, economical sciences, technical sciences, agricultural sciences and forestry, medical sciences, and science and technology of information.
All three organizations are located in Bucharest, and in , had 67 research institutes attached to them. Of that amount, Foreign sources provided 7. In , Romania had 22 universities offering courses in basic and applied sciences.
Wholesale and retail trade were entirely in the socialized sector before Since , the government has worked more diligently, yet slowly, to create a market economy by eliminating consumer subsidies, liberalizing the exchange rates, and initiating tighter monetary policies.
Further privatization programs are also underway and the government is considering ways to promote and encourage foreign commercial investment. Domestic trade of consumer goods has been limited to local markets.
There are only a few professional distributors and independent retailers tend to be rather small. Oradea serves as a regional marketing and shipping center for livestock and agriculture.
Arad is a regional commercial and industrial center in the west while Pitesti serves as a hub for the south-central region. Turgu-Mures serves as a regional industrial and agricultural center for central Romania.
Stores are open daily, except Sunday, from 10 am to 6 pm. Food shop and retail department store hours are 7 am to 9 pm Monday to Saturday and 7 am to 12 noon on Sundays.
Also, the number of retailers and products has increased dramatically in the past years. Big companies like Metro, Billa, Selgros, and Carrefour opened stores in most of Romania’s big cities, offering an increasing array of products.
Offices generally open at 7 or 8 am and close at 3 or 4 pm. Exchange counters in banks transact public business from 8 am to 12 noon, but exchange offices at border crossings remain open 24 hours a day.
Before , foreign trade was a state monopoly carried out through export-import agencies under the administration of the Ministry of Foreign Trade. Under the Communist industrialization program, structural changes were particularly striking in exports, with machinery and nonedible consumer goods emerging as important export items.
Foreign trade was in surplus throughout the s, but fell into deficit in the s. Romania’s increasing trade deficit after was due in large part to the depreciation of its currency, large energy imports despite large domestic reserves , and the loss of two important export markets due to international sanctions: Iraq and the former Yugoslavia Serbia and Montenegro.
The low quality of Romania’s export products has also contributed to its large trade deficits. Major export groups in were manufactures especially textiles and footwear , basic metals and articles, and mineral products; the major import groups included capital goods, food, fuel and energy.
Trade with the EU countries, especially Germany, has increased substantially in recent years, largely because of Romania’s expanding need for advanced Western technology and equipment. In the first quarter of , Romania’s main export markets were Italy with Imports came mainly from Italy Trade with Western countries has involved growing amounts of credits in recent years.
As a result of a series of devaluations of the Romanian leu dating from February , Western imports became increasingly costly while the quality of Romania’s exports significantly declined. Current account deficits have been financed in large measure by loans and grants from international financial institutions, but Romania has attempted to diversify its sources of external financing.
Romanian banks were nationalized in Established in , the bank of issue is the National Bank of the Socialist Republic of Romania, which also extends short-term loans to state enterprises and supervises their financial activities.
The Romanian Bank for Development finances investments of state enterprises and institutions and grants long-term credit. As investments increased in volume, this bank was required to intensify its control over the use of funds allocated for investment.
The Romanian Bank for Foreign Trade conducts operations with foreign countries. Savings are deposited with the Loans and Savings Bank. In , New York ‘s Manufacturers Hanover Trust opened an office in Bucharest, the first such instance for a Western commercial bank in a communist nation.
Romania has generally been very cautious in its approach to banking reform. Since , the financial sector has undergone a fundamental overhaul, although the pace of change has been slower than elsewhere in the region.
The number of banks rose from five in December to 41 by the end of — including four branches of foreign banks, four branches of joint ventures based abroad, and 33 domestic banks. The foreign specialized banks — for development, agriculture, and foreign trade — still handle almost all of the business in these areas.
At decade’s end, Romania’s financial institutions, like the rest of its economy, remained in severe and protracted crisis. Moreover, these banks continued to be plagued by bad debt.
Romania set up its first postwar stock exchange in , after the enabling legislation has been delayed for several years. During the Communist era, all commercial insurance was nationalized. Since , casualty, automobile, and life insurance have been made available through private insurers with foreign partners.
Private insurers are only legally permitted as joint-stock or limited liability companies. Policies available include life, automobile, maritime and transport, aircraft, fire, civil liability, credit and guarantee, and agricultural insurance, with third-party auto insurance compulsory.
The annual budget is presented to the Grand National Assembly around December and becomes effective for the fiscal year on 1 January. The state budget, prepared by the Ministry of Finance, is a central part of the financial plan for the whole economy.
As a result of fiscal reforms begun since the fall of the Ceausescu regime in December , adherence to IMF fiscal targets, and an unanticipated inflation-fed revenue windfall during the first half, the central government unofficially recorded a relatively modest deficit for As of the first decade of the 21st century, the government’s priorities included reigning in of its fiscal policy, continuing to develop its relationship with the IMF, and continuing the process of privatization.
Public debt in amounted to The International Monetary Fund IMF reported that in , the most recent year for which it had data, central government revenues were l, billion and expenditures were l, billion.
Government outlays by function were as follows: Romania’s taxation system in the s was notable for its erratic and confusing nature, but with reforms in late there has been movement towards uniformity and simplicity.
There are also property taxes. Many basic services are exempt from VAT including banking and financial services. Other taxes include excise and stamp taxes. Under an interim collaborative agreement effective 1 May , a revised Romanian import tariff schedule was introduced with preferential tariffs for imports from European Union and EFTA member nations.
Tariff rates are on an ad valorem basis. Foreign investment was negligible before the overthrow of the Communist regime. A new foreign investment law was enacted in Incentives to foreign investors include tax holidays and reduction, full foreign ownership of an enterprise, and full conversion and repatriation of after-tax profits.
However, the latter is a drawn-out process because of the central bank’s shortage of hard currency. The largest foreign operations are in the automobile, steel, oil and banking industries.
The economy of Romania before was centrally planned and, for the most part, under complete state control. Economic planning, conducted by the State Planning Commission, emulated the Soviet example.
Nationalization of industry, mining, transportation, banking, and insurance on 11 June was followed by one-year economic plans in and These were succeeded by the first five-year plan — 55 , which laid the groundwork for rapid industrialization, with emphasis on heavy industry, primarily machine-building.
Greater attention was given to consumer goods and to agriculture. The eighth five-year plan, for — 90, projected a In the farming sector, the government has assiduously pursued a policy of collectivization.
By virtue of the 22 March land reform, most farms over 50 hectares acres — a total of about 1. In , the remaining large private farms were seized, and their , hectares 1,, acres organized into state farms.
Various pressures, including coercion, were used to force peasants into joining. In April , collectivization was announced as virtually completed, although there were farms, especially in remote areas, that were left in the hands of their rightful owners.
Agricultural development in following years was comparatively neglected. As of 1 January , Romania began implementing the “new economic-financial mechanism,” an attempt to introduce into the Romanian economy the principle of workers’ self-management as previously developed elsewhere in Eastern Europe, notably in the former Yugoslavia and Hungary.
Accordingly, autonomous production units were expected to plan for their own revenues and expenditures and manpower needs. These separate plans were, however, to be harmonized with the national economic plan, so that Romania’s centralized system of goal and price setting was not significantly altered.
One of the major economic targets in the s was the reduction of foreign debt, which was achieved but at the cost of drastic austerity measures and reduced industrial growth.
After the fall of Communism, a major objective was the privatization of 6, state enterprises. The economy was to be completely restructured, with the emphasis on private ownership and adherence to the market for the allocation of resources.
Economic growth declined in the late s, but picked up in the early s. Romania is seeking admission to the European Union, with accession envisaged for The accession could however be postponed until if Romania fails to implement the necessary reforms one of the biggest problems that still needs to be addressed is corruption.
The center-right government that was elected in is confident however that is a realistic target, and is working hard towards achieving that goal. In December Romania closed the pre-accession negotiation with the European Union, in October it received the “functionally market economy” status, and it is looking to continue its sustained economic growth in the years preceding the accession.
However, one of the biggest concerns that Romanian policy makers are having is the capacity of the country to respond to EU market pressures once it will be part of that organization.
While some sectors have registered significant progress, others are still lagging and will probably suffer once the accession is completed. For example, Romania’s main car manufacturer, Dacia — now owned by Renault, has been very successful in acquiring an important share of the internal and external market with its new model — Logan; the information technology IT industry is one of the most vibrant in Europe a study recently done by Brainbench found that Romania is in fourth place globally, in terms of its IT workforce numbers.
The agriculture sector, on the other hand, suffers from fragmentation, lack of economic cohesion economies of scale are hard to achieve on small parcels of land that are owned by people with different interests , and a lack of future perspective.
A social insurance system has been in place since Social security covers most wage earners, and a voluntary system is in place for persons wishing additional coverage.
Old-age pensions are granted at age 65 for men and at 60 for women. The program is funded by contributions from employers and employees, with deficits covered by the government.
Workers who do not meet the conditions of duration of employment at retirement age are provided with social assistance. Survivors’ benefits are payable to the spouse, father and mother, and brothers and sisters who are dependents of the deceased, and to children up to age Workers’ compensation and unemployment insurance are also provided, as well as maternity benefits and family allowances.
All residents are entitled to medical care. Families with children under age 16 receive family allowances and a birth grant for each child. In addition to state social insurance, other schemes cover members of artisans’ cooperatives, the clergy, and the professions.
The constitution guarantees equal pay for equal work, but women are still concentrated in low-paying professions. Few women are in senior management positions in the private sector. Women also face considerable employment discrimination in Romania’s harsh economic climate and suffer from a higher rate of unemployment than do men.
Violence against women, including rape, is a serious problem. It is difficult to bring rape cases to trial because the victim’s testimony is not considered sufficient evidence; medical evidence and witnesses are required.
Domestic abuse is widespread. Ethnic Hungarians are the largest minority and are subject to discrimination. The Roma population continues to be harassed, and there are reports of anti-Semitic activity.
Human rights are generally respected although there were continued reports of the mistreatment of detainees. The government has improved prison conditions and instituted vocational training, but prisons are still overcrowded.
As part of a broader social and economic transition, Romania’s health care system underwent major reforms in the s as it was transformed from a centralized, tax-based system to a pluralistic one based on contractual relationships between health care providers and insurance funds.
Until the end of the decade, primary care was provided mainly through some 6, public-sector dispensaries throughout the country, with each patient assigned to a facility.
Patients have subsequently been allowed to choose their own dispensary and general practitioner. As of , there were an estimated physicians, nurses, and 23 dentists per , people.
Total health care expenditure was estimated at 4. Increased mother and child care lowered the infant mortality rate from per 1, live births in to The general health of the population has likewise improved, with several previously serious diseases eliminated or greatly reduced e.
Leading causes of death were cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory diseases. Overall mortality was Average life expectancy in was Romania’s birth rate in was an estimated The total fertility rate was 1.
Immunization rates for children up to one year old were: There were an estimated deaths from AIDS in Inadequate housing has been a serious problem since World War II.
Romanian housing suffered from the earthquake, war damage, neglect, and inadequate repair and maintenance after the war. An increase in the urban population caused by industrialization and emphasis on capital construction exacerbated the problem.
Since , the government has encouraged private construction by state support in the form of credits and expertise. However, an uncertain economy means that maintenance for existing properties has been somewhat poor.
In , the total housing stock was at about 7. At the census, there were 8,, dwellings serving Education is compulsory for students between the ages of 6 and The general course of study includes four years of primary school followed by four years of lower secondary school.
Students may attend art or trade schools after their primary education is complete. At the upper secondary level, students may choose between schools offering general studies, vocational programs, or technical studies.
Upper secondary programs generally last from three to four years. The academic year runs from October to June. It is estimated that about Admission to an advanced institution depends on a variety of factors, including the student’s social background.
Over half the students receive government assistance. Yearly quotas are established by the Ministry of Education according to manpower needs. Students in some fields must first complete six months of practical work in industry or agriculture.
Like the other formerly Communist countries, Romania has emphasized polytechnic education in recent years. This “link of education with life” in the early grades means studying practical subjects; however, beginning in the upper grades there are work programs, often directly in enterprises, in workshops, or on collective farms, depending on the locality.
The adult literacy rate for was estimated at about As of , public expenditure on education was estimated at 3. The National Library in Bucharest holds over 8.
The Romanian Academy Library in Bucharest is also a national library. It holds about 10 million items, mainly on the history and culture of the Romanian people.
The next largest public libraries are the university libraries at Bucharest 1. Romania has some museums. Bucharest is home to many of the most important museums, including the National History Museum of Romania, the National Museum of Art, and the newer Historical Museum of Bucharest founded in and Cotroceni National Museum , featuring Romanian fine art, architecture, and decorative art.
Also in the capital are the Cecilia and Frederick Storck Museum, highlighting the works of Karl Storck, a great Romanian sculptor, and his family, also prominent artists; the Curteo Veche Museum, featuring archaeological exhibits and housed in a 15th-century palace; and the Museum of Romanian Literature.
In , there were an estimated mainline telephones for every 1, people; about , people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately mobile phones in use for every 1, people.
In , Romanian Public Television controlled four national stations. Radio Romania operates one domestic and one external service. There are several privately owned commercial stations in both television and radio.
As of , there were 40 AM and FM radio broadcasting stations. A report indicated there were 48 television stations. In , there were an estimated radios and television sets for every 1, people. Also in , there were There were 65 secure Internet servers in the country in Though the constitution provides for freedom of expression and prohibits censorship, it is illegal to “defame” the country.
Journalists are prosecuted under this law and sentenced to prison terms. Economic organizations concerned with Romania’s internal and external economic activities include the Romanian Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
In the Council for National Minority Affairs was formed for the discussion of minority issues. The body is headed by the Secretary General of the government. Representatives from 16 officially recognized minority groups and 12 government ministries make up the organization.
There are also many cooperatives in key sectors of the economy. Many Romanian farmers belong to the private Farmers’ Federation. There are about 4, farming cooperatives and 41 district unions.
A large cooperative located in the manufacturing and consumers sectors of the economy is the Central Union of Commerce and Credit Cooperative. There are over 2, production and credit cooperatives.
Another important cooperative is the Central Union of Handicraft Cooperatives. There is also an active Association for the Protection of Consumers. The Romanian Academy was founded in to promote public interest, education, and research in scientific fields.
Several professional associations also promote research and public education in specific fields, such as the Romanian Medical Association. Serving a very specific cultural niche, the Transylvania Society of Dracula , based in Bucharest, promotes the study of the Bram Stoker novel, Dracula , and the life of Prince Vlad Dracula, on whom the book is loosely based.
There are several sports associations representing a variety of pastimes, such as tennis, skating, track and field, baseball and softball, and badminton. Civitas Foundation for the Civil Society, established in , sponsors community development and social programs promoting an open, democratic society.
The Carpathian Mountains, the Black Sea coast, and the Danube region were developed to attract large numbers of tourists. The monasteries in Bukovina are famous for their exterior frescoes.
Castle Dracula, the castle of Prince Vlad of Walachia, has been a tourist attraction since the s. Popular sports are football soccer , skiing, hiking, swimming, canoeing, wrestling, handball, and gymnastics.
Between and , Romanian athletes won Olympic medals 48 gold, 52 silver, and 76 bronze. Romania was the only Socialist country to send athletes to the games in Los Angeles ; all the others, following the USSR’s lead, boycotted these games.
A valid passport is required to enter Romania of all foreign nationals except those of the countries of the European Union who only need an identity card. Citizens of the United States, Canada and most European countries do not need a visa for stays of up to 90 days.
The average length of stay was 3. Perhaps the most famous historical figure in what is now Romania was Vlad ? Nicolae Ceausescu — 89 was general secretary of the Communist Party between and and head of state from to ; his wife, Elena — 89 , was a member of the Permanent Bureau of the Executive Committee of the Communist Party.
Mihail Kogalniceanu — 91 , a leading statesman in the early Romanian monarchy, inaugurated modern Romanian historiography. Vasile Alecsandri — 90 was a leader of the traditionalist school of writers, which sought its inspiration in the Romanian past rather than in imitations of foreign writers.
Mihail Eminescu — 89 is regarded as an outstanding poet, famous for romantic lyricism. His friend Ion Creanga — 87 drew from folklore and wrote with a gaiety and gusto recalling Rabelais.
Mihail Sadoveanu — was an important novelist in the period between the two world wars. Romanian-born Elie Wiesel b. Romanian-born Mircea Eliade — 86 was a scholar in comparative religion and comparative mythology, in the United States from Romanian-born Tristan Tzara — , a literary and artistic critic who settled in Paris, was one of the founders of Dadaism.
Nicolae Grigorescu — and Ion Andreescu — 82 were leading painters, as was Theodor Aman — 91 , a modern artist and founder of the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest.
Saul Steinberg — was a cartoonist and illustrator, best known for his work for the New Yorker magazine; he emigrated to the United States in Perhaps the greatest names Romania has given to the musical world are those of the violinist and composer Georges Enescu — , known for his Romanian Rhapsodies, and the pianist Dinu Lipatti — A prominent tennis player is Ilie Nastase — 94 ; gymnast Nadia Comaneci b.
The Roma in Romanian History. Central European University Press, Politics, Economics, and Society. An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. New York University Press, Mass Media in Revolution and National Development: Iowa State University Press, Oxford University Press, The Road to Romanian Independence.
Purdue University Press, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Retrieved March 25, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Romania, located in southeastern Europe, is about the size of Pennsylvania and New York combined.
The terrain of Romania mainly consists of rolling, fertile plains with hills in the eastern region of the central Danube River basin and with the Carpathian mountain ranges running north and west in the center of the country.
Romania is bordered on the north and northeast by the Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova , on the northwest by Hungary , on the south and southwest by Yugoslavia and Bulgaria , and on the east by the Black Sea.
The country occupies an area of , square kilometers 91, sq. As of the year , the estimated population of Romania was Its largest city and capital, Bucharest , had an estimated population of 2.
Although much of the population is rural and agricultural, there are six cities with populations of , or more Constanta, Iasi, Timisoara, Cluj-Napoca, Galati, and Brosav. Its people are overwhelmingly Romanian 89 percent which, unlike Slavs and Hungarians, are traced to Latin speaking Romans.
However, there are a large number of ethnic and minority groups that make up a small portion of Romania’s population. Hungarians make up about seven percent of the population and the remainder comprises Germans, Ukranians, Croats, Serbs, Russians, Turks , and gypsies.
Hungarians and gypsies are their primary minority groups. The official language is Romanian, but some of its population speaks Hungarian and German. The religious population of Romania is almost entirely Christian.
More than 85 percent of its population is Orthodox; about five percent is Roman Catholic; another five percent is Reformed Protestant, Baptist , or Pentecostal; and a very small number are Greek Catholic or Jewish.
Forty-two percent of the Romanian workforce about 9 million is in agriculture; 38 percent is in industry and commerce; and the remaining workforce is in tourism and other occupations.
Romania’s natural resources include oil, natural gas, timber, coal, salt, and iron ore. Its chief exports are textiles, fuels, metals, wood products, chemicals, and light manufactures.
The GDP of the economy of Romania has been growing at rates as high as seven percent in the s in Its highly literate workforce 98 percent literacy and its economic base in agriculture, energy, and tourism gives Romania great economic potential in the future United States Department of State Romania’s history and politics has driven the intellectual development of their people.
Throughout Romania’s history the country has been on what has been called a “path of a series of migrations and conquests” United States Department of State In the second century A.
Remnants of early education, including Latin inscriptions, have been found from this time period. Romania was considered to be lost for a number of years, but reemerged in the middle ages as part of Moldova and Wallachia.
There were church related schools beginning in A. The oldest known school in Romania was started in the monastery at Cenadul Vechi in the eleventh century. Due to the influence of Rome in these early principalities, much of the instruction at this time was in Latin and continued to be so from the eleventh through sixteenth centuries.
The first schools to teach in the Romanian language are rooted back to the sixteenth century. Like most schools of the time, these were church-related. In the seventeenth century, more schools were founded in the cities of Sighet, Tirgoviste, Jina, Lancram, Hateg, and Turda.
Schools of Greek education were later founded in Bucharest and Tirgoviste. The first university was also founded in Moldavia in where philosophy and literature were the foundations of its curriculum.
It is important to note that a portion of Romania e. This becomes important in Romanian history as Hungarians and Germans later become national minorities and education in their languages is suppressed by latter day Romanians.
Up until the s, churches still dominated schools, but there began to be some schools under the administration of local communities. In the s and s, the majority of schools were tied to localities and varied in organization and curriculum.
But starting in the late s and into the s, some of the schools were budgeted by communities, and local laws began to form and administer education systems. Teachers and professors became a profession separate from the clergy.
Schools of music, medicine, and engineering were founded and there began to be some sense of equality in education where women and men were treated equally. Private schools also began to open that were not related to churches.
The Moldovian and Wallachian principalities, however, were badly managed under the Ottoman Empire and were eventually unified under a native prince, Alexander Ioan Cuza, in In , the new Legislative Assembly provided Romania with a compulsory education system that included free primary education for the first four years, a system of secondary education for seven years, and three years of higher education.
Romania is considered to be one of the first countries to provide compulsory education. Romania became independent under the Treaty of Berlin after the War of Romania later crowned its first king in In this early period of Romania, numerous educational laws and regulations were handed down that set out the education system of Romania.
Some of these laws provided for the selection and training of teachers, the extension of compulsory education, the exclusion of peasant children from secondary schools, and extensions in the curricula of secondary and higher education.
Graduates of Romanian higher education before had to go through a period of compulsory employment after their studies Reisz Through a propaganda program, higher education in Romania was considered elitist and came to be associated with institutions that produced doctors, teachers, engineers, economists, and lawyers.
Although Romania was located between the Hungarian, Russian, and Austro-Hungarian Empires, it garnered much of its educational, cultural, and administrative models from its complex history and from the west.
In particular, influence came from trade relations with the French United States Department of State Romania was an ally of the west in World War I and was granted more territory after the war in such areas as Transylvania, Bessarabia, and Buckovina.
In , the addition of Transylvania established the national state of Romania. Because Transylvania was a portion of the Austrio-Hungarian empire, Transylvania’s education and culture were heavily influenced by the Hungarians.
Schools in Transylvania, before its annexation by Romania, only permitted instruction in Hungarian. As a result, there were far more Hungarians than Romanians who were enrolled in secondary schools.
This became an important foundation in Romanian educational history, because Romanians under communism required Hungarians to be taught in the Romanian language. Nested virtualization has been suggested by the security communit y to pro-.
Virtualization is a key component of cloud computing, especially on infras-. Hardware with virtualization support,. How ever, since modern operating systems have started to in-.
Nested virtualization has been proposed recently to serve as a security mech-. Therefore in this pro ject, we study. In hardware-assisted virtualization environmen ts, these interactions are in.
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Categ ory Linux Kernel vulnerabilities by cate gory and year. In nested virtualization, interac-. This behavior may allow. In cloud scenarios, where no access to a nested host is allowed, the.
In this section, we describe our prototype implementation of a framework to. Single and nested virtualization environments are implemen ted using KVM. W e choose kernel version 3.
KVM module Figure 4. F or the nested guest, a default installation. As part of the installation. W e use QEMU 2. F or tracing events during virtualization, the function tracer tool ftrace.
Kernel compilation and installation. The debugfs must be mounted in the. In addition, the types of events to monitor m ust be chosen. In our implementation the KVM events are all set to be traced.
This allows the ftrace utility to examine the KVM ev ents occurring during. The parsing and analysis of data obtained during monitoring is performed. Later, we use python scripts to categorize the VM-Exit.
Compiling and instal ling QEMU. Enabling tracing befor e monitoring. In virtualized environments, when the guest virtual mac hine tries to execute. During the monitoring per-. The set of instructions traced are shown in T able 5.
W e measure the interaction between the hypervisor and a guest virtual ma-. We study this interaction in setups that. Each workload was measured F or a single-level virtualization, the guest machine was launc hed using.
F or the nested virtualization. W e used bash scripts to launch and monitor. We monitored VM-Exit interactions under the follo wing conditions:. It makes the ref-. It makes the referenced VMCS active and current.
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This is because the virtual machine needs. VM-Exits generated by launching of a virtual machine. VM-Exits occurred Table 5. Comparing the idle measurements and the. In nested environments an increase in the amoun t of VM-Exits is exp ected.
Interaction Under Nested Virtualization. VM-Exits generated by idle virtual machine. VM-Exits generated by Ap ache server during performance test with httperf in a. All VM-Exits are trapped by the L0 hypervisor.
The emulation of the VMX. Moreover the nested virtualization runs with both. As a result the L0 hypervisor also exposes this. During the startup of the L1 hypervisor, the number of VM-Exits are similar.
The total amount of VM-Exits. How ever during the launch of L1, there are some. VM-Exits types that do not appear with a single-level of virtualization. V M ON , Figure 5. This is because the L1 hypervisor also includes.
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The other common causes. VM-Exits generated by launching neste d guest L2. VM-Exits generated by idle nested guest with all the instructions. The VM-Exit pattern running httperf also shows a ten-fold increase com-.
Although the num ber of occurrences of. There is a clear warm-. VM-Exit Analysis of instructions and per centage of the total amount of exits on. In this work, we implemen ted a framework for the monitoring and analyzing.
VM-Exits interactions in virtualized environmen ts. We studied the in terac-. VM and the VM running httperf. As a result, we observed patterns on. VM-Exits occurrences in each of the workloads.
In single-level, we observ ed. W e prop osed three use cases for our framework applied to security in virtu-. Additionally , we proposed that VM-Exit behavior analysis in nested virtu-. In cloud settings, where a nested guest runs several services, the.
Hosting and cloud study. Intrusion detection and honey-. Lee Diego P erez-Botero. Intel 64 and ia architectures soft ware dev eloper manuals,. Popek and Rob ert P. F ormal requirements for vir-.
ACM , 17 7: Nested virtualization in xen, X86 paravirtualised memory management, Qemu open source processor emulator, Kernel based virtual machine. Understanding full virtualization, paravirtualization, and.
Xiaoming Li, and Zhenlin W ang. Detecting and analyzing vm-exits. Yingwei Luo, and Xiaoming Li. Towards verifiable resource accounting for outsourced computation. Wuqiong Pan Yulong Zhang. Intrusion detection and honeypots in nested virtualization environments.
Michael Beham Marius Vlad. Discover more publications, questions and projects in Virtual Environments. Transparent protection of VMs against hypervisor failures with nested virtualization.
The increasing amount of resources in a single machine constantly increases the level of server consolidation for virtualization. However, along with the improvement of server efficiency, the dependability of the virtualization layer is not being progressed towards the right direction; instead, the hypervisor level is more vulnerable to diverse failures due to the increasing complexity and Recent research has developed virtualization architectures to protect the privacy of guest virtual machines.
The key technology is to include an access control matrix in the hypervisor. However, existing approaches have either limited functionalities in the hypervisor or a Trusted Computing Base TCB which is too large to secure.
Design and implementation of electric power mobile terminal secure access system. With the electric power enterprise business scope expands, the demand for mobile office is becoming more and more urgent.
In this situation, how to realize security communication and data exchange between mobile terminal and enterprise internal network depend on public network has become a key problem to be solved for various enterprises, especially electric power enterprises.
A novel cloud bursting technique. Companies even SMEs are roused by the success and potentials of the public clouds and they build their own private cloud infrastructures.
Thus, they open the door to an easier and more flexible way for outsourcing their IT services than before. However, the currently available software solutions still do not provide seamless extensibility by cloud bursting.
Therefore, the IaaS users have to Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed.