Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages – 4 9 – ar


valid until 2018/1/23

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages

24.02.2018 – Automatic substitution Exact matches come up in translating new versions of a document. The purpose of the Term Link specification is to provide a rigorous notation for linking embedded terms in an XML document to their entries in an external termbase.

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages clean

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages

What’s New?

1. 3ROI Return on investment, a performance measure that is used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment.
2. 3 They also believe that human governments are controlled by Satan, [] but that he does not directly control each human ruler. Giving evidence of a broad command of the original language, it renders the original words into a second language understandably without deviating unnecessarily from the specific structure of the Hebrew.http://softik.org/3dmgamedead-space-3-crack-only-v1-03dm/ http://softik.org/3dmgamedeath-and-the-fly-v1-0-fulltheta/Missionaries, circuit overseers, district overseers, special pioneers, and branch-office workers receive small allowances each month. They believe that all worship should be directed toward him, and that he is not part of a Trinity ; [] consequently, the group places more emphasis on God than on Christ.

3. 7 It is done monolingually using superficial parsing and alignment is based on segmentation. http://softik.org/3d-driving-school-2011-simulator-world-practical-part-of-examination/The text units contained in the leveraged memory database can also be used to provide fuzzy matches of similar previously translated text from within the same document.

Common terms used in translation

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages

4. 6 Text memory comprises two components: Software engineering Process of translating and adapting computer software from one language and culture into another.Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languagesOLIF Abbreviation for open lexicon interchange format. University of Wisconsin Press.

5. 10 Individual who carries out management and coordination tasks for a given translation project.

6. 4 UTF-8 -Abbreviation for 8-bit Unicode transformation format.

7. 8 Automatic retrieval TMs are searched and displayed automatically as a translator moves through a document.

Videos dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages for laptop windows

Getting to know the jargon of translation is an essential part of building the partnership with the supply chain and fully comprehending what you are buying. Here follows a brief guide to commonly used terms in translation and what they mean.

We were all very pleased with the work that you did on this job, thank you so much! Thank you for the prompt, excellent service! We rely on Logos Group to provide the best and you don’t disappoint.

Please convey my well wishes to everyone at Logos Group. You are a wonderful company! Project Manager of the Logos Team demonstrates much skill and preparation working with our projects. I often send emails asking questions and receive quick knowledgeable responses.

We are very satisfied with the customer service we are getting at the moment. Good contact with our project manager and from time to time we have conference calls to see the vision from both sides which helps both Logos and us to anticipate much more.

I have worked with Logos with several companies and have always raved about their quality and good service. Adaptation Process of converting information into an appropriate format for the target language and culture.

Algorithm TM applications employ fuzzy matching algorithm s to between similar target language strings, flagging differences. The flexibility and robustness of the matching algorithm largely determine the performance of the system.

Alignment Alignment is the task of defining translation correspondences between source and target texts. Alignment is a texts that allows text in a range of software packages to be converted semi-automatically into a Translation Memory format for re-use.

There should be feedback from alignment to segmentation and a good various algorithm should be able to correct initial segmentation. Alignment tool Application that automatically pairs versions of same text in the source and target languages in a table.

Also called bi-text tool. Ambiguity Situation in which the intended meaning of a phrase is unclear and must be verified – usually with the source text author – in order for translation to proceed.

Antonym Antonyms are opposites words, that reside in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, e. In the pairs – male: Arabic numerals Set of ten numerals 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 that comprise the most commonly used symbolic representation of numbers throughout the world.

Artificial intelligence Branch of computer science devoted to creating intelligent machines that produced the first efforts toward machine translation.

Attributes are also those fields that define and qualify term bases. Automatic retrieval TMs are searched and displayed automatically as a translator moves through a document.

Automatic substitution Exact matches come up in translating new versions of a document. During automatic substitution, the translator does not check the translation against the original, so if there are any mistakes in the previous translation, they will carry over.

Automatic translation Machine-based translation process not subject to input by a human translator. Back translation Process of translating a previously translated text back into its source language.

Bidirectional Script that normally reads from right to left but contains some exceptions in which other characters, like numerals, read from left to right. Hebrew and Arabic are examples of bidirectional languages.

CAT tools Computer-assisted translation tools – The process by which a human translator uses computer software to facilitate translation. Common Sense Advisory Market research agency providing data to operationalize, benchmark, optimizeand innovate industry best practices in translation, localization and associated industries.

Character set Collection of symbols or characters that correspond to textual information in a language or language group. Cognate In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

An example of cognates within the same language would be English net and skirt. Compilation The activities required to check, process and output to one or multiple target formats in a single source publishing environment e.

Collaborative translation Emerging approach to translation in which companies use the elements of crowdsourcing in a controlled environment for working on large corporate projects in short periods of time.

Concatenation Procedure of linking multiple files or messages together as a single document, often to facilitate processes such as search and replacement, term list extraction, collocation finding, and repetition rate establishment.

Concordance This words allows translators to select one or more words in the source segment and the system retrieves segment pairs that match the search criteria. This feature is helpful for finding texts of terms and idioms in the absence of a terminology database.

Consistency Measure of how often a term or phrase is rendered the same way into the target language. Context Information outside of the actual text that is essential for complete comprehension.

Controlled vocabulary Standardized terms and phrases that constitute a system’s vocabulary. Controlled language Language in which grammar, vocabulary and syntax are restricted in order to reduce ambiguity and complexity and to make the source language easier to understand by native and non-native speakers languages easier to translate with machine and human translation.

Country code Abbreviation of two or three characters to signify a country or dependent area. Crowdsourcing The practice of 4116 needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees net suppliers CT3 Abbreviation for community, crowdsourced, and collaborative translation.

Cultural dictionary Adjustment of a translation to conform with the target translate. Cultural assessment Examination of an individual’s or group’s cultural preferences through comparative analyses.

Culturally-sensitive translation Translation that takes into account cultural differences. DBE Abbreviation for double-byte enabled. Dialect Variety of a language spoken by members of a particular locale and characterized by a unique vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation.

It provides a comprehensive architecture for the authoring, production and delivery of technical documentation. The essence of DITA is the concept of topic-based publication construction and development, which allows the modular reuse of specific sections.

Each section is authored independently, and then each publication is constructed from the section modules. This means that individual sections need only be authored and translated once, and may be reused many times over in different publications.

DNT Abbreviation for do not translate. List of such phrases and words include brand names and trademarks. Domain Area of knowledge that is communicated within a text, translation, or corpus. DTD Document type definition.

Description of how content should be structured, providing rules for tags and characteristics, to enable programs to more easily process and store the document.

Before the 80’s all printing and publishing was done manually and could take hours, then Paul Brainerd, founder of Aldus Corporation and PageMaker languages the term desktop publishing after printing a hard copy of a document from a desktop terminal.

Here are some of the most common uses of DTP: Although closely related DTP should not be confused with graphic design, which involves the creative process of coming up with the concepts and ideas and arrangements for visually communicating a specific message.

Double-byte enabled Quality of an application or program that supports double-byte languages. Double-byte language Language – such as Chinese, Korean, and Japanese – that requires two bytes 16 bits to represent each character precisely.

Dubbing Recording or replacement of voices commonly used in motion pictures and videos for which the recorded voices do not belong to the original actors or speakers and are in a different language.

Dynamic content Data produced in response to changeable, unfixed and retrieved from a database through user requests. Eastern Arabic numerals Set of symbols used to represent numbers in combination with the Arabic alphabet in various countries, including Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan, and parts of India.

Also called Arabic Eastern Numerals. Encoding scheme System that assigns a numeric value to each character, in order to convert the character set to an automated form for transmitting and maintaining information.

Exact match Exact matches during Translation memory analysis appear when the match between the current source segment and the stored one has been a character by character match.

When translating a sentence, an exact match means the same sentence has been translated before. Extended characters Characters that exceed the ASCII character range of seven bits, such as characters with diacritical marks or non-Roman characters.

False friends False friends are pairs of words or phrases in two languages or dialects or letters in two alphabets that look or sound similar, but differ in meaning. Functional testing Reviewing software applications and 4116 to ensure that the localization process does not change the software or impair its functions or on-screen content display.

Fuzzy match Indication that words or sentences are partially – but not exactly – matched to previous dictionary. When the match during Translation Memory analysis has not been exact, it is a fuzzy match.

Those figures are not comparable across systems unless the method of scoring is specified. Fuzzy logic Process that creates near matches in text to translation memory terms when exact matches cannot be found.

GILT Acronym for globalization, internationalization, localization, and translation. Gist translation Use of human or machine translation to create a rough translate of the source text that allows the reader to understand the essence of the text.

Globalization G11N Globalisation or globalization describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade.

Globalization is referred to as a cycle, rather than a single process. G11N – Abbreviation for globalization, with the number 11 representing the number of characters between the G and N.

Glocal Combination of the words ‘global’ and ‘local,’ used to describe products or services intended for international markets and have been customized for different languages, countries, and cultures Glossary A glossary, also known as an idioticon, vocabulary, or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.

Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book which are either newly introduced, uncommon or specialized. A bilingual glossary is a list of terms in one language which are defined in a second language or glossed by synonyms or at least near-synonyms in another language.

In a general sense, a glossary contains explanations of concepts relevant to a certain field of study or action. In this sense, the term is related to the notion of ontology. Automatic methods have been also provided that transform a glossary into an ontology or a computational lexicon.

Global information management Metrics eXchange GMX is a family of standards of globalization- and localization-related metrics. The three components of GMX are: Volume V Global Information Management Metrics Volume addresses the issue of quantifying the workload for a given localization or translation task, various often handled using word counts.

Word counts, however, words not convey the between range of possible statistics that can be used and assess the cost of localizing a document.

GMX-V provides a standard and more precise definition of the statistics necessary for to assess the quantity of text and costs associated with language-related globalization tasks.

GMX-C will provide a standard metric for the assessment of textual complexity with regard to globalization and.

Pro dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages version 722

Provide users with access to terminological data stored remotely. Before me no God was formed, And after me there has been none. Controlled vocabulary Standardized terms and phrases that constitute a system’s vocabulary. In extreme cases, products that were not internationalized may not be localizable. We should have confidence in the channel God is using. The text units contained in the leveraged memory database can also be used to provide fuzzy matches of similar previously translated text.

Dictionary net 3 3 4116 translate texts and words between various languages temporada

Double-byte enabled Quality of an application or program that supports double-byte languages. Double-byte language Language – such as Chinese, Korean, and Japanese – that requires two bytes 16 bits to represent each character precisely.

Dubbing Recording or replacement of voices commonly used in motion pictures and videos for which the recorded voices do not belong to the original actors or speakers and are in a different language.

Dynamic content Data produced in response to changeable, unfixed and retrieved from a database through user requests. Eastern Arabic numerals Set of symbols used to represent numbers in combination with the Arabic alphabet in various countries, including Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan, and parts of India.

Also called Arabic Eastern Numerals. Encoding scheme System that assigns a numeric value to each character, in order to convert the character set to an automated form for transmitting and maintaining information.

Exact match Exact matches during Translation memory analysis appear when the match between the current source segment and the stored one has been a character by character match.

When translating a sentence, an exact match means the same sentence has been translated before. Extended characters Characters that exceed the ASCII character range of seven bits, such as characters with diacritical marks or non-Roman characters.

False friends False friends are pairs of words or phrases in two languages or dialects or letters in two alphabets that look or sound similar, but differ in meaning.

Functional testing Reviewing software applications and programs to ensure that the localization process does not change the software or impair its functions or on-screen content display. Fuzzy match Indication that words or sentences are partially – but not exactly – matched to previous translations.

When the match during Translation Memory analysis has not been exact, it is a fuzzy match. Those figures are not comparable across systems unless the method of scoring is specified. Fuzzy logic Process that creates near matches in text to translation memory terms when exact matches cannot be found.

GILT Acronym for globalization, internationalization, localization, and translation. Gist translation Use of human or machine translation to create a rough translation of the source text that allows the reader to understand the essence of the text.

Globalization G11N Globalisation or globalization describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade.

Globalization is referred to as a cycle, rather than a single process. G11N – Abbreviation for globalization, with the number 11 representing the number of characters between the G and N. Glocal Combination of the words ‘global’ and ‘local,’ used to describe products or services intended for international markets and have been customized for different languages, countries, and cultures Glossary A glossary, also known as an idioticon, vocabulary, or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.

Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book which are either newly introduced, uncommon or specialized. A bilingual glossary is a list of terms in one language which are defined in a second language or glossed by synonyms or at least near-synonyms in another language.

In a general sense, a glossary contains explanations of concepts relevant to a certain field of study or action. In this sense, the term is related to the notion of ontology. Automatic methods have been also provided that transform a glossary into an ontology or a computational lexicon.

Global information management Metrics eXchange GMX is a family of standards of globalization- and localization-related metrics. The three components of GMX are: Volume V Global Information Management Metrics Volume addresses the issue of quantifying the workload for a given localization or translation task, something often handled using word counts.

Word counts, however, do not convey the true range of possible statistics that can be used to assess the cost of localizing a document. GMX-V provides a standard and more precise definition of the statistics necessary for to assess the quantity of text and costs associated with language-related globalization tasks.

GMX-C will provide a standard metric for the assessment of textual complexity with regard to globalization tasks. This format has not yet been defined. GMX-Q will provide a standard format for the specification of quality requirements for globalization tasks, thus allowing quality expectations to be specified in contracts and other agreements and verified.

Homonym A homonym is one of a group of words that share the same spelling and the same pronunciation but have different meanings. Context is often defined by the surrounding sentences and attributes such as document file name, date, and permissions.

In-country review Evaluation of a translated text by an individual who resides within the country where the target text will be used. Internationalization I18N Internationalization is the planning and preparation stages for a product that is built by design to support global markets.

This process removes all cultural assumptions and any country- or language-specific content is stored so that it can be easily adapted. If this content is not separated during this phase, it must be fixed during localization, adding time and expense to the project.

In extreme cases, products that were not internationalized may not be localizable. I18M – 18 stands for the number of letters between the first i and last n in internationalization, a usage coined at DEC in the s or 80s.

Interpretation Process of rendering oral spoken or signed communication from one language to another, or the output that results from this process. Language System of signed, spoken, or written communication.

Language tags and codes Language codes are closely related to the localizing process, as they indicate the locales involved in the translation and adaptation of the product. There are multiple language tag systems available for language codification.

Language kit Add-on feature that permits a keyboard to produce character sets for a given language. Language Services Provider LSP An organization or business that supplies language services, such as translation, localization, or interpretation.

Commonly abbreviated LSP Leverage Practice of reusing previously translated terms and phrases in new translations Rank which evaluates how much of the previously translated text can be reused Linguistic parsing The base form reduction is used to prepare lists of words and a text for automatic retrieval of terms from a term bank.

On the other hand, syntactic parsing may be used to extract multi-word terms or phraseology from a source text. So parsing is used to normalise word order variation of phraseology, this is which words can form a phrase.

Literal translation Translation that closely follows the phrasing, order and sentence construction of the source text. Localization L10N Process of adapting or modifying a product, service, or website for a given language, culture or region.

Language localization from the English term locale, a place where something happens or is set is the second phase of a larger process of product translation and cultural adaptation for specific countries, regions, or groups to account for differences in distinct markets, a process known as internationalization and localization.

Language localization is not merely a translation activity, because it involves a comprehensive study of the target culture in order to correctly adapt the product to local needs. Localization is sometimes referred to by the numeronym L10N as in: L, followed by ten more letters, and then N.

Localization refers to the actual adaptation of the product for a specific market. The localization phase involves, among other things, the four issues LISA describes as linguistic, physical, business and cultural, and technical issues The localization process is most generally related to the cultural adaptation and translation of software, video games, and websites, and less frequently to any written translation which may also involve cultural adaptation processes.

Localization can be done for regions or countries where people speak different languages, or where the same language is spoken: Localization engineering Software engineering carried out to support localization.

Activities include internationalization, bug fixing, functionality testing, dialog box resizing, help compilation, and other software-related activities. Most LSPs charge for these services by the Localization tool Application that assists with the translation and adaptation required for localization.

Machine Translation also known as automated translation Translation carried out exclusively by a machine. Machine translation plus translation memory A workflow and technology process in which terms not found in translation memory are automatically sent to the machine translation software for translation.

Markup language Artificial language that uses annotations to indicate how text should be formatted. Match Indication that words or sentences are matched – either partially or fully – to previous translations.

Meaning-for-meaning translation Translation for which the words used in both languages may not be exact equivalents, but the meaning is the same. Metadata Information that describes data.

Morpheme Smallest unit of meaning in a language. Mother tongue Native and first learned language of an individual. MT MT – Abbreviation for machine translation. Multi-byte character set Character set in which the number of bytes per character varies.

Multi-byte language Language that requires the use of a multi-byte character set. Multiculturalization Process by which the linguistic and cultural diversity among a group of people increases. Multi-language vendor MLV Language service provider that offers services in multiple language pairs.

Multilingual workflow Automation of business processes related to the development of multilingual products by managing multilingual content, usually through a translation management system, machine translation, and translation memory.

Multinationalization Process of expanding an organization’s presence into multiple nations. Native language First language that a human learns naturally, usually since childhood.

Networking TM Server When networking during the translation it is possible to translate a text efficiently together with a group of translators. This way, the translations entered by one translator are available to the others.

Moreover, if translation memories are shared before the final translation, there is a chance that mistakes made by one translator will be corrected by other team members.

Neutral Spanish also Universal Spanish Spanish that is mutually intelligible by speakers from various parts of the Spanish-speaking world and is not immediately identifiable with any single regional variety of the language.

No standards exist for defining neutral Spanish. Next-wave language One of the languages of growing importance on the web. OLIF Abbreviation for open lexicon interchange format. Ontology Description of the relationships between concepts, objects, and other entities within a given field.

Plain English Method of writing English that employs a clear and simple style, usually for the purpose of improving readability. Among its features are using only active verbs no passive voices and making sure that each word has only one meaning.

PM PM – Abbreviation for project manager. Individual who carries out management and coordination tasks for a given translation project. PPW Abbreviation for price per word. Post-editing Process by which one or more humans review, edit, and improve the quality of machine translation output.

Project manager Individual who carries out management and coordination tasks for a given translation project. Pre-editing Process by which a text is edited prior to translation in order to clarify ambiguous terms and increase translatability.

Pre-translation Phase of translation process in which documents are prepared for conversion into another language. Usually includes an automated analysis against translation memories so that previously translated text is inserted in a file, therefore avoiding rework and associated costs.

Project setup Translation preprocessing steps include tasks such as glossary and style guide preparation, project planning, file preparation, content familiarization, and training.

Proofreading Practice of checking a translated text to identify and correct spelling, grammar, syntax, and coherency and integrity errors, usually carried out by a second linguist or translator.

Proofreading can be done by editors with no second language. Pseudo localization is the process of faking translation of software or web applications before starting to localize the product for real.

It is used to verify that the user interface is capable of containing the translated strings length and to discover possible internationalization issues. Pseudo-translation is a procedure which simulates how a translated document will look after translation and how much extra DTP or other work will be required before actual translation is done.

This can help in setting the appropriate timelines of projects. QA QA – Abbreviation for quality assurance. Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which specific processes are followed with the purpose of minimizing errors.

QC QC – Abbreviation for quality control. QI QI – Abbreviation for quality improvement. Quality improvement Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the overall goal is to enhance performance.

Quality assurance Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which specific processes are followed with the purpose of minimizing errors. Quality control Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the target text is reviewed with the purpose of catching errors.

Quality improvement Quality improvement Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the overall goal is to enhance performance. RBMT Abbreviation for rules-based machine translation.

Register Measure of formality of language dependent upon the tone, terminology, and grammar implemented. Repetition Sentence or phrase that is repeated in the source text, often referred to a Translation Memory analysis.

Rich Media Content Synonymous for interactive multimedia. A broad range of interactive digital media that exhibit dynamic motion, taking advantage of enhanced sensory features such as video, audio and animation.

ROI Return on investment, a performance measure that is used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment. Roman numerals System of numerals that evolved from the system used in classical Rome, often used for purposes such as numbering pages in introductions or prefaces.

SAE J A metric for the evaluation of translation quality, originally developed for the automotive sector. The metric comprises eror categorization and severity. Segment Sentence or phrase that is separated from the rest of a text based on language construction rules such as punctuation.

Segmentation Its purpose is to choose the most useful translation units. Segmentation is like a type of parsing. It is done monolingually using superficial parsing and alignment is based on segmentation.

If the translators correct the segmentations manually, later versions of the document will not find matches against the TM based on the corrected segmentation because the program will repeat its own errors.

Translators usually proceed sentence by sentence, although the translation of one sentence may depend on the translation of the surrounding ones. SimShip – Simultaneous shipment Abbreviation for simultaneous shipment.

Single-byte character set Character set in which a single 8-bit byte represents a character. Single sourcing single source publishing Single sourcing or single source publishing – Process of producing a document in one format and automatically translating or publishing it into multiple formats.

Software development kit Documentation and source code that facilitate the process of developing programs that interface with a given product. Software engineering Process of translating and adapting computer software from one language and culture into another.

Also referred to as localization engineering. Source code Code that is compiled to develop a program. Source count Number of words in a text to be translated. Source file File that contains the source document in its original form, as opposed to a generated file, and is required for localization processes.

Source language Original language of the text that to be translated. Source text Text to be translated. Source text analysis Analysis of the source text prior to translation that provides a better idea of the difficulty of the translation.

The ability to specify the segmentation rules that were used in the previous translation may increase the leveraging that can be achieved. Segmentation Rules eXchange SRX is the vendor-neutral standard for describing how translation and other language-processing tools segment text for processing.

It allows Translation Memory TM and other linguistic tools to describe the language-specific processes by which text is broken into segments usually sentences or paragraphs for further processing.

It was developed when it was realized that TMX leverage was sometimes lower than expected because different tools segmented text in different ways, preventing a direct correlation between results between the tools.

Standard line Measure of the usual number of keystrokes per line in a certain text, which varies per country, and consists on average of 50 to 60 characters; commonly used for translation projects that are priced on a per line basis.

Statistical machine translation Second-generation solutions that take a probability-based approach to translation through computational analysis of data, treating data as character strings, determining patterns, and leveraging regularities.

Style guide Document that describes the correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, style and numeric formats to ensure consistency and quality in a translated text. Style sheet Document or template that describes the structure and format of a document, with instructions regarding fonts, page size, spacing, margins, paragraph styles and tag mark-ups to ensure consistency and quality in a translated text.

Subtitles also captioning Subtitles are textual versions of the dialog in films and television programs, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen. They can either a written form of the original language or a translation.

Synonym Synonyms are different words with almost identical or similar meanings, e. Syntax Study of structure and elements that form grammatical sentences. Tagging Marking content in a document with information about its content.

Target audience Group of people who receive the information rendered by the interpreter in the target language. Target language Language into which the text is translated. XML standard for exchanging terminological data.

Technical translation Translation of technical texts, such as user or maintenance manuals, catalogues and data sheets. Term Word, phrase, symbol or formula that describes or designates a particular concept.

Term extraction also term harvesting Selecting terms in a text and placing them in a terminology database for analysis at a later time. Terminology Collection of terms Terminology analysis Process carried out prior to translation in order to analyze the vocabulary within a text and its meaning within the given context, often for the purpose of creating specialized dictionaries within specific fields.

Terminology database Electronic repository of terms and associated data. Term extraction It can have as input a previous dictionary. Moreover, when extracting unknown terms, it can use parsing based on text statistics.

These are used to estimate the amount of work involved in a translation job. This is very useful for planning and scheduling the work. Translation statistics usually count the words and estimate the amount of repetition in the text.

Termbase A termbase is a database containing terminology and related information. Most termbases are multilingual and contain terminology data in a range of different languages.

Termbase Definition and the Structure of Entries All termbase entries are structured in the following way: Entry level – contains system fields, and any descriptive fields that apply to the entry as a whole.

Index level – contains index fields with terms as content, and any descriptive fields that apply to all terms in a given language. Term level – contains any descriptive fields that apply to a given term.

The termbase definition for a given termbase specifies the number and type of fields that a termbase entry may contain and the entry structure that entries must conform to.

The entry structure specifies: The number and type of fields that may exist at each level in the entry. The hierarchical structure of fields within each level, that is, whether fields are nested or not.

Whether fields are mandatory or multiple at a given level of the entry. Persecution of Jehovah’s Witnesses in Nazi Germany. Supreme Court cases involving Jehovah’s Witnesses by country.

Criticism of Jehovah’s Witnesses. New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. Watch Tower Society unfulfilled predictions. Jehovah’s Witnesses’ handling of child sex abuse.

It is essential for life. Doing so, be complete in accepting its every aspect. Our attitude toward this arrangement demonstrates how we feel about the issue of sovereignty In Crisis of Conscience , , pg.

The Watch Tower book noted: Some of it may lack the precision that its detractors appear to demand, but the Society’s position is quite clear. Jehovah’s Witnesses do not claim to have any new revelation or people who are designated as prophets.

As cessationists, they identify the ability to prophesy as a gift that died out with the first generation of Christians, but prophetic utterances remain in the Bible, which serves as the key source of authority.

Superior Court of the State of California. Retrieved 27 December We are a hierarchical religion structured just like the Catholic Church. Dictionary of American History 3rd ed.

Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. The Trumpet of Prophecy: A Sociological Study of Jehovah’s Witnesses. Stark, Rodney ; Iannaccone, Laurence R. Journal of Contemporary Religion. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.

World Almanac and Book of Facts. The American Heritage Dictionary. Jehovah’s Witnesses in Auschwitz”. Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Doctrine has always emanated from the Society’s elite in Brooklyn and has never emerged from discussion among, or suggestion from, rank-and-file Witnesses.

The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain 5: Nevertheless, he persisted in moulding the Society to suit his own programme of activist evangelism under systematic central control, and he succeeded in creating the administrative structure of the present-day sect of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

A Study of Jehovah’s Witnesses. In , came an important milestone in the history of the organization. For many years Rutherford’s followers had been called a variety of names: In order to distinguish clearly his followers from the other groups who had separated in Rutherford proposed that they adopt an entirely new name— Jehovah’s witnesses.

Beckford, The Trumpet of Prophecy , , page 30, “The new title symbolized a break with the legacy of Russell’s traditions, the instigation of new outlooks and the promotion of fresh methods of administering evangelism.

Since the death of Charles T. Russell there have arisen numerous companies formed out of those who once walked with him, each of these companies claiming to teach the truth, and each calling themselves by some name, such as “Followers of Pastor Russell”, “those who stand by the truth as expounded by Pastor Russell,” “Associated Bible Students,” and some by the names of their local leaders.

All of this tends to confusion and hinders those of good will who are not better informed from obtaining a knowledge of the truth. Rutherford, through the Watch Tower Society, succeeded in changing all aspects of the sect from to and created Jehovah’s Witnesses—a charismatic offshoot of the Bible student community.

In Search of Christian Freedom. A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Westminster John Knox Press. The Jehovah’s Witnesses’ interpretation of Christianity and their rejection of orthodoxy influenced them to produce their own translation of the Bible, The New World Translation.

This article quotes from a number of widely accepted Bible translations. Historical Dictionary of Jehovah’s Witnesses , pg. The Story of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

University of Toronto Press. Most Witnesses tend to think of society outside their own community as decadent and corrupt This in turn means to Jehovah’s Witnesses that they must keep themselves apart from Satan’s “doomed system of things.

The Jehovah’s Witnesses are well known for their practice of ‘disfellowshipping’ wayward members. The committee should be careful to allow sufficient time, perhaps many months, a year, or even longer, for the disfellowshipped person to prove that his profession of repentance is genuine.

University of Calgary Press, , pg 1— Counting the Days to Armageddon. When Do They End? University of Toronto Press, , p. That we are living “in the last days”—”the day of the Lord”—”the end” of the Gospel age, and consequently, in the dawn of a “new” age.

Chryssides , Scarecrow Press, , page xxxiv, “Russell wanted to consolidate the movement he had started. In , Bible House, a four-story building in Allegheny, was completed, with printing facilities and meeting accommodation, and it became the organization’s headquarters.

The next stage of institutionalization was legal incorporation. Russell was concerned that his supporters should feel part of a unified movement. In , a charter was granted recognizing the Society as a religious, non-profit corporation.

Books, booklets, and tracts are distributed by the hundreds of millions. This is supplemented by well-publicized speaking tours and a masterful press relations effort, which gives him widespread access to general audiences.

Established initially in the s by Charles Taze Russell under the title International Bible Students Association, this organization has proclaimed Pierson et al, Light After Darkness , , page 4.

One of Rutherford’s first actions as president Responsibility for preparing this volume was given to two of Russell’s close associates, George H. Fisher and Clayton J. On the face of it, their brief was to edit for publication the notes left by Russell But the fact is, he did write it.

This book may properly be said to be a posthumous publication of Pastor Russell. This book is chiefly a compilation of things which he wrote and which have been brought together in harmonious style by properly applying the symbols which he explained to the Church.

International Bible Students Association. The Jehovah’s Witnesses and Prophetic Expectations”. International Journal for the Study of New Religions. Many of those who remembered wistfully the halcyon days of Mr Russell’s leadership found that the new incumbent did not fulfill their expectations of a saintly leader.

Various elements split off from the parent body, and such fission continued throughout Rutherford’s leadership. What Does the Record Show? Christian Research Journal , Summer , pg Some local congregations broke away, forming such groups as the Chicago Bible Students, the Dawn Bible Students, and the Laymen’s Home Missionary Movement, all of which continue to this day.

Schnell, Baker, Grand Rapids, , as cited by Rogerson, page Rogerson notes that it is not clear exactly how many Bible Students left, but quotes Rutherford Jehovah , , page as saying “only a few” who left other religions were then “in God’s organization”.

Johnson April , pg Johnson stated that between late and early , “20, to 30, Truth people the world over have left the Society. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co. Between Resistance and Martyrdom: Jehovah’s Witnesses in the Third Reich.

University of Wisconsin Press. Historical Dictionary of Jehovah’s Witnesses. The Orwellian World of Jehovah’s Witnesses. Does this mean that the above evidence positively points to as the complete end of this system of things?

Since the Bible does not specifically state this, no man can say If the s should see intervention by Jehovah God to bring an end to a corrupt world drifting toward ultimate disintegration, that should surely not surprise us.

Reports are heard of brothers selling their homes and property and planning to finish out the rest of their days in this old system in the pioneer service. Certainly, this is a fine way to spend the short time remaining before the wicked world’s end.

Crisis of Conscience PDF. Archived from the original PDF on Notes a nine percent drop in total publishers door-to-door preachers and a 38 per cent drop in pioneers full-time preachers in the Netherlands.

Journal of Contemporary Religion: Cited statistics showing a net increase of publishers worldwide from to of ,, while baptisms totaled 1. It is to be regretted that these latter statements apparently overshadowed the cautionary ones and contributed to a buildup of the expectation already initiated.

We cannot claim to love God, yet deny his Word and channel of communication. Therefore, in submitting to Jehovah’s visible theocratic organization, we must be in full and complete agreement with every feature of its apostolic procedure and requirements.

Although Bethelites may receive somewhat more today, they are certainly not paid anything like ‘real wages. Missionaries, circuit overseers, district overseers, special pioneers, and branch-office workers receive small allowances each month.

Encyclopedia of American Religion and Politics. The religious order of Jehovah’s Witnesses caters to the needs of all volunteers who have taken a vow of poverty and obedience.

A Clinical Guide for Nurses. The Four Major Cults. Going beneath the water symbolizes that you have died to your former life course. Being raised up out of the water indicates that you are now alive to do the will of God.

Remember, too, that you have made a dedication to Jehovah God himself, not to a work, a cause, other humans, or an organization. To receive everlasting life in the earthly Paradise we must identify that organization and serve God as part of it.

How else can one get Jehovah’s favor and blessing? West Palm Beach, FL: Again Zechariah talked with the angel of the Lord, which shows that the remnant are instructed by the angels of the Lord. The remnant do not hear audible sounds, because such is not necessary.

Jehovah has provided his own good way to convey thoughts to the minds of his anointed ones Those of the remnant, being honest and true, must say, We do not know; and the Lord enlightens them, sending his angels for that very purpose.

The Governing Body as a whole considers adjusted explanations. What they learn, they publish for the benefit of all. True, the brothers preparing these publications are not infallible. Their writings are not inspired as are those of Paul and the other Bible writers.

Or do we continue doing things just as we have been accustomed to doing them? Are we familiar with up-to-date directions, such as those regarding conducting home Bible studies, preaching to foreign speaking people, regularly sharing in family worship, cooperating with Hospital Liaison Committees, and conducting ourselves properly at conventions?

Do you clearly discern the evidence of divine guidance? Thus, what is taught is not from men but from Jehovah. Fear of disobedience to the Governing Body keeps Jehovah’s Witnesses from carefully checking into biblical doctrine or allegations concerning false prophecy, faulty scholarship, and injustice.

Witnesses are told not to read books like this one. This means that we avoid exposure to religious programs on radio and television as well as religious literature that promotes lies about God and his Word.

Thus, the faithful and discreet slave does not endorse any literature, meetings, or Web sites that are not produced or organized under its oversight. He does not advocate or insist on personal opinions or harbor private ideas when it comes to Bible understanding.

Rather, he has complete confidence in the truth as it is revealed by Jehovah God through his Son, Jesus Christ, and the faithful and discreet slave. The Scripture is there given in support of the statement, and therefore the individual when he looks up the Scripture and thereby verifies the statement, But nowhere do we read that those brothers first, in a skeptical frame of mind, checked the Scriptures to make certain that those letters had Scriptural backing, that the writers really knew what they were talking about.

We can benefit from this consideration. If we have once established what instrument God is using as his ‘slave’ to dispense spiritual food to his people, surely Jehovah is not pleased if we receive that food as though it might contain something harmful.

We should have confidence in the channel God is using. Cavorting With the Devil: In their songbook, the number of songs extolling Jesus was about the same as the number extolling Jehovah.

But in the latest songbook of , Jehovah is honored by four times as many songs as is Jesus. There is a close connection between the holy spirit and the power of God. The holy spirit is the means by which Jehovah exerts his power.

This does not mean, however, that every human ruler is a direct tool of Satan. It is a great privilege to get baptized as one of Jehovah’s Witnesses. Moreover, baptism is a requirement for Christians, and it is a vital step toward gaining salvation.

There is only one You must be part of Jehovah’s organization, doing God’s will, in order to receive his blessing of everlasting life. However, they also believe that it is not their job to judge who will be saved.

Ultimately, God is the Judge. Who would represent on earth the restored Davidic Kingdom? In the larger fulfillment, the “standing” will occur when the United Nations the modern-day “disgusting thing” attacks Christendom which is holy in the eyes of nominal Christians and the rest of Babylon the Great.

The same attack is described at Revelation That event will be the beginning of the great tribulation. Armageddon Around the Corner: A Report on Jehovah’s Witnesses. What Does the Bible Really Teach?

How long should a formal Bible study be conducted with an individual in the Knowledge book? We want people to receive a basic knowledge of the truth. Yet it is expected that within a relatively short period of time, an effective teacher will be able to assist a sincere average student to acquire sufficient knowledge to make an intelligent decision to serve Jehovah Appreciation for taking in even a basic knowledge of the truth should motivate the student to attend Christian meetings.

This could lead the student to giving some clear evidence of his desire to serve Jehovah. If such spiritual appreciation is not evident after the study in the Knowledge book has been conducted for an extended period, it may be advisable to discontinue the study.

The society states explicitly that all Bible studies should quickly show signs of ‘real progress’ to be deemed worthy of pursuit At the end of the month, the book study overseer makes sure that all in the group have followed through on their responsibility to report their activity.

Continuum International Publishing Group. Insight on the Scriptures. Should bioethical deliberation consider dissidents’ views? Journal of Medical Ethics. How to Treat a Disfellowshipped person”.

Keep Yourselves in God’s Love. Consequently, all other religious organizations are in error and are to be strictly avoided. The absolutist view of truth further implies that, since anything less than absolute truth can only corrupt and destroy it, there can be no justification for Jehovah’s witnesses having any kind of association with other religionists, however sincere the motivation might be.

Steering Clear of Danger We must also be on guard against extended association with worldly people. Perhaps it is a neighbor, a school friend, a workmate, or a business associate.

What are some of the dangers of such a friendship? We could begin to minimize the urgency of the times we live in or take a growing interest in material rather than spiritual things.

Perhaps, because of a fear of displeasing our worldly friend, we would even desire to be accepted by the world. Yet, they remain little affected by that exposure—they confine their contacts to their single-minded purpose and avoid all other occasions for association.

Most Witnesses do not pursue higher education. It is not forbidden but is a matter of conscience. Higher education creates the risk of detracting from one’s spiritual work and can result in harmful associations with fellow students who may lack integrity.

It is therefore recommended that, if possible, Witnesses who undergo should continue to live at home. Those who seek education beyond school level are urged to consider their motives for doing so: Archived from the original on December 24, The Faith of Journalists “.

Accounting for the differing trajectories of Seventh-Day Adventists and Jehovah’s Witnesses”, Sociology of Religion , Winter , “The urgency of the Witness’s apocalyptic has changed very little over time.

The intellectual isolation of the Witness leaders has allowed them to retain their traditional position, and it is they who continue to be the chief purveyors of the radical eschataology This commitment to principle was bolstered by their organizational isolation, intense indoctrination of adherents, rigid internal discipline, and considerable persecution.

Examples of permitted fractions are: Examples of permitted procedures involving the medical use of one’s own blood include: Our History and Organization: Office of Public Information of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Archived from the original on While other religious groups count their membership by occasional or annual attendance, this figure reflects only those who are actively involved in the public Bible educational work [of Jehovah’s Witnesses].

Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation: Retrieved 14 December Jehovah’s witnesses and the third reich. A State of Terror: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives.

The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 20 April Religious Persecution and the Dawn of the Rights Revolution. University Press of Kansas. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids. Retrieved 16 August Doing so, be complete in accepting its every aspect From the very outset of his rebellion Satan called into question God’s way of doing things.

He promoted independent thinking. How is such independent thinking manifested? A common way is by questioning the counsel that is provided by God’s visible organization. In a world where people are tossed about by confusing winds of religious doctrine, Jehovah’s people need to be stable, full-grown Christians.