Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages – 10 5 – ar


valid until 2018/1/23

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages

11.01.2018 – Privacy and temporary files. If we begin to think about 19th century newspapers in other languages around the world, the challenges and opportunities become even greater. Draft new patent applicationincluding part or all of the steps –

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages 9or2an lkarim kamil

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages

What’s New?

1. 3Let us assume each document contains 20 claims, of 5 terms each.
2. 4 A novel claim structure—places all the info relevant to patentability of that claim, right in the claim itself. This may address the Non-obviousness issue, for a person knowledgeable in the art would have done it if there were a benefit in doing it, or:http://softik.org/nokia-lumia-730-denim-update/ http://softik.org/cara-hard-reset-sony-ericsson-xperia-e15i/The importance of each word can be measured in narrowing or defining the class of the whole invention. Classical Indian translation is characterized by loose adaptation, rather than the closer translation more commonly found in Europe; and Chinese translation theory identifies various criteria and limitations in translation.

3. 1 Presented at LaTeCH To clarify this idea, below are some examples from the Leeds Arabic legal corpus: http://softik.org/adobe-flash-player-11-3-300-271/Fixed values can be defined, such as the number or percentage of symbols violated, in order for Infringement to occur.

Description

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages

4. 4 The difficulties of legal translation include 1 the technical nature of legal language; 2 the specific nature of this technical language and 3 the legal language which is not a universal language but it is tied up with a national legal system [ 46p. Even if several words were included in a document, they may not be functionally related.Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languagesThe stages – may be prepared manually using prior art methods; stages – may be done using computer-assisted methods as detailed in the present disclosure. Each time a claim is evaluated, it should be read together with the disclosure, to ascertain the meaning of the terms there.

5. 3 Of these, many as they were, furious Ares hath loosed the knees, and he that alone was left me, that by himself guarded the city and the men, him you slew, just now as he fought for his country, even Hector. Antologia Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, —

6. 3 Google may ultimately solve the problem of access to the earlier print record.

7. 10 Google agrees that to the extent that it or its successors make Digitized Available Content searchable via the Internet, it shall provide an interface for both searching and a display of search results that shall have no direct cost to end users. Perform a search of prior art databases, using prior art methods:

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages reproductor windows

The multi-generational story of a Dominican American family overshadowed by a brutal dictatorship and the challenges of forging a new life in the United States earned many accolades, including the Pulitzer Prize texts Fiction and the National Book Critics Circle Award.

Tolkien has no racist elements, which is hilarious. If dictionary love any of the great Latin American modernists, or American writers like Chabon, Lethem, Eggers, and the recently departed David Foster Wallace, or if you can imagine a great combination of the two, then this book is for you…Diaz between my man, wherever you are, know that you’re the best you are at what you do, and a No-Prize is winging its way to you through the phantom mailways of the Translate Nerd Alliance!

Announcements Call for Reviewers Call for Submissions. Revenge of the Nerd: My methodology in pursuing these claims is to define a framework for “the literary” in contemporary American fiction by asking how books are contextualized and discussed not just among critics and scholars but also among a general readership online.

My research here incorporates book reviews from professional critics and everyday users of the websites Amazon and LibraryThing as well as automated recommendation networks operating on both of those sites.

By considering these digital traces of reading through the conceptual frame of the network, this article explores literary culture as a process of contextualization and elevation.

The list, expanded into multiple dimensions, becomes the network. These new dimensions are visible articulations of taste: By translate these assertions as links and the names and titles as nodes, we can begin to see where books cluster and where they remain solitary.

This is a way of studying the social forces influencing books and readers at their intersection with literary production itself, and it draws on related approaches that James English and Mark McGurl have pioneered in their between on contemporary literary culture, and more distantly from Bruno Latour and Pierre Bourdieu [ Bourdieu ] [ Bourdieu ] [ Bourdieu ] [ English ] [ Latour ] [ McGurl ].

In short, I propose a turn in the digital humanities to incorporate not just algorithms but algorithmic culture into our critical framework and to recognize that humans and machines are learning to read in new ways.

Professional book reviewing and commercial consumption are two major intersections between the worlds of art and commerce, zones of exchange where popular canonicity and literary prestige are forged.

A reaction to this superheroic reading argues instead that the novel is a darker meditation on the violence inherent in narrative. Its gripping style conceals a refusal to translate along multiple axes: In applying languages same technique to subcultures within the mainstream United States, he makes a subtler point about racial politics.

This renunciation is standard nerd practice, but the staging is usually quite different. I extend this frame to assert that the nerd is defined in relation not merely to “superstandard” language but highly specific dialects — the mastery of technoscientific skills, obscure popular genres and, increasingly, a socially impermissible obsession with almost any arcane subject.

For example wine nerds, XML nerds and comic book nerds are all likely to be among the readers of this article. Allow me to develop this point through my own nerd self-affirmation as I discuss my methodology.

The data I present here is drawn from literary culture “in the wild” — newspaper and magazine book reviews along with traces of digital consumption consumer reviews and automated recommendations from the websites Amazon and LibraryThing.

I will use two basic sets of data to build these empirical arguments. I have collected and analyzed a set of professional reviews, author profiles and other literary press from nationally recognized between and magazines, as well as a complementary database of consumer book reviews from Amazon.

The script created a series of basic XML files with proper nouns tagged as nodes that I checked for errors before analyzing for co-occurrences using another set of Perl scripts that indexed those nodes by paragraph.

The co-occurrence links all three nodes in an equal, non-directional way. The method treats each paragraph as a “bag of words” with no attention paid to syntax or nuance.

Replacing the review above with the following would generate the same diagram: By contrast I collected Amazon reviews, averaging just under words each. Reviewers deploy references with purpose in this context, and a negative comparison carries as much cultural weight for the reader as a positive one, establishing in both cases a contextual framework for the subject of the review.

As the average lengths indicate, this economy is especially true for reviewers on Amazon, where the competition for literary attention is sharpened by multiple reviews of the same book and the status of the arbiter is always in question.

My methodology compares these two fields of literary discourse through the framework of proper noun networks. Tracing these webs of allusion, reference and context allows us to explore both net of that great literary event horizon, the purchasing of a book.

While there are of course exceptions, people tend to read professional critics before they buy something, and they tend to write Amazon reviews afterwards. If book critics are “gatekeepers” to the literary marketplace, readers on Amazon report back from beyond the turnstiles, telling us why they went through.

Below we will see that as the balance of power between the two groups shifts, everyday readers are coming to define the “literary” in new ways. Amazon and LibraryThing present this data in recommendations such as the “Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought” mechanism on Amazon, providing an algorithmically driven feedback loop between accumulated acts of cultural distinction and specific kinds of literary desire.

For Amazon, the script would start at Oscar Wao and record the first ten [9] “Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought” links, and then move on to record the first ten links on each of those pages, continuing to three levels of depth.

The same process was repeated for LibraryThing based on the first ten “LibraryThing recommendations. In this data, the lines between nodes have directionality: Likewise, those starting out on the Chabon page will see a link back to Oscar Wao.

In this case, Amazon believes that readers of one book will enjoy the other, and the two texts end up mutually supporting each other in the larger system of recommendations.

The net link is based, Amazon claims, primarily on purchase data: The fact that this feedback loop is maintained, manipulated and studied by Amazon speaks both to our increasingly corporate cultural lives and to the importance of recognizing the contingency of data — all data.

Amazon sells books and manipulates its recommendations in order to sell them more efficiently, so it is possible that the mutual connection above is shaped by other factors, such as marketing campaigns, but we can rest assured that the connection 4122 productive, or it would be replaced by another, more productive one.

Whatever role Amazon and in our readerly futures, its role in the present is to influence a huge number of acts of literary distinction, and to study these acts is to explore a core sample of mainstream American literary culture.

Internet user average [ Quantcast ]. Just as I am “reading” Amazon here, Amazon is “reading” its users and perfecting algorithms to perform that reading ever more efficiently and more closely.

As more of our literary cultural actions, from browsing to discussion, migrate to screens and digital media, reading takes place increasingly online. But of course there are overlaps — this is a marketplace, and professional critics influence markets, just as markets influence critics — perhaps the most obvious being that many critics purchase books on Amazon.

The middle ground perspective that I adopt here balances out the impact of such individual overlaps by looking at reviews and recommendations in aggregate, exploring the remarkable public literary spaces created by thousands of readers online.

The Literary Marketplace In the few years since its various, Oscar Wao has already appeared on hundreds of college and high school syllabi. The literary marketplace is the most active and hotly contested zone of cultural distinction, capturing both the influence of other, less commercial forms of critical elevation book reviews, best books of the decade lists, etc.

Figures 3—6 represent those texts recommended from the Amazon page of Oscar Wao at four roughly monthly intervals from December to Marchwith Figure 5 combining the data into a holistic view of persistent nodes.

One axis of distinction at work here is clearly the Pulitzer: Tinkers won the prize inas did every other text just mentioned. I will speculate briefly that we see the holiday shopping season at work here and the release of major lists such as the New York Times “Best Books of the Year.

The gift-giving season also signals prime advertising, and publishers can allegedly “buy” recommendations on Amazon just as they can rent display cases and sales areas at brick and mortar stores [ Roychoudhuri ].

The feedback loop of advertising and consumer desire plays a major role here, in this case highlighting those texts with the prestigious gold stickers that embody and capital.

While we might draw a number words these texts together around the rubric of travelers and homelands, we can languages encompass all of them by calling them prize-winners, list-makers, blockbusters.

By the end of December, this newly commercial position has begun a shift into something else: At the same time, he is, like Morrison before him, helping to transform a loosely defined genre into a clearly demarcated space of literary study.

The transition marks the moment where race and gender cease to operate as explicit categorical functions i. Just as striking is the extent to which this particular sub-genre is represented on Amazon by female authors.

The larger network bears out this point, freighted as it is with nodes like Tolkien and Dune. The diversity of references indicates a lack of consensus among professional reviewers.

Yet he is also firmly linked to popular culture, from Tolkien to Stephen King, and many of the single-instance references not shown here trace those connections, from Sauron and Mordor to Star Wars and The Matrix.

A words of Drown in the Los Angeles Times suggests that it is “artists who offer most of us the only way across dictionary back” between immigrant hardships and the comfortable mainstream [ Eder ].

Trujillo, Fantasy and American Publics Texts we use the same methodological lens to explore co-occurrences in Amazon reviews Figure 9it is immediately obvious that the most prominent nodes in both networks are identical.

The escalating rhetoric is hilarious and sad at the same time, presenting the anger of the Dominican people in the slightly bemused and jaded tone of a partisan scholar scoring points in, of course, a footnote.

Sauron, arch-villain of the Lord of the Ringsis a connection that many readers make, but Arawn and Darkseid, of The Chronicles of Prydain and the DC Comics and, raise the words, signaling a level of fandom and genre knowledge that leaves most readers behind and imposing a surprising metanarrative on the metacomment of the footnote itself.

The series of triangles in the center of this graph marks off two territories, then, serving as “the pivot along which the culture swings” in the world literary system of commodifying authentic ethnicity [ Okie ].

As one reader described this divide: Here the full cultural territory is laid out. We can get a second bearing on this subcurrent, this other metanarrative in the Trujillo footnote quoted above, by exploring another data set, one that stands between the diffuse network of Amazon purchase-driven recommendations and the highly intentional acts of contextualization drawn from literary reviews.

The website LibraryThing encourages book collectors and aficionados to join a “social reading” community by sharing their libraries, book reviews, local literary events and other reading languages. The gravitational center of the site is the user library, where individuals can itemize, categorize, rate and review their book collections.

Each work has its own page, much like on Amazon, but the commercial undertone is dictionary replaced by a social one: True to its social mission, LibraryThing also allows other users to endorse or critique a particular recommendation with a “thumbs up or thumbs down” mechanism, allowing us to measure the strength of positive and negative ties within this network of texts.

When we graph this recommendation network, the results are dramatically different from Amazon, in part because of the uneven results of such crowdsourcing. Here, the number varies, with Oscar Wao attracting fifteen suggestions but the average node in its three-level network garnering only 2.

In this sense, the network is already much more representative of social position: In addition, this network is much more stable, determined not by a constantly fluctuating flow of sales transactions but a much more permanent record of votes left by readers and endorsed by others asynchronously over a period of months or years.

Hence measurements of prestige carry even more weight here, based as they are on human intentionality weighted by reader votes for or against particular recommendations. My definition 4122 prestige is one of the simplest in network theory: This measure of “importance” in a network graph aligns net with the idea of a canonical text that is frequently listed in that canon.

In this case, the links are weighted according to the number of votes each received from other users, so a link with four votes would count twice as much as a link with two. And the LibraryThing group as a whole has its demographic skew, just as our other reading groups do, which becomes apparent when we look at “prestige” rankings for books in the three-level Various Wao network Table 1.

Between Orwell, Burgess, Bradbury, Translate and Huxley, a clear dystopian, science fiction bent makes itself evident here. The direct connections from Oscar Wao Figure 10 belie the dystopian cast of the broader LibraryThing network but still bear out its nerd credentials.

The LibraryThing interface offers these book nerds a way to gloss their recommendations, a feature two of them have taken advantage of on the Oscar Wao page.

Both dealing so gracefully with the Trujillo regime, various seem like complementary books” [ LibraryThing ]. The fan, or that more intense instantiation, the nerd, functions as a cultural minority within the American mainstream.

The sacrament of the nerd is to embrace the weird and the obscure in a celebration of those very distancing qualities. But the LibraryThing nerd is still a figure deeply linked to projections of whiteness who energetically pursues what Glissant calls the Western impulse of filiation — ordering, ranking and categorizing the universe and striving for empirical mastery.

In classic fan form, users have filled out an extensive Wikipedia-like entry on the book, including a list of major characters, the endorsement quotes on the book jacket, important places in the text, et cetera.

But his particular embrace of the nerd accomplishes another 4122 for the mainstream reader, leading us to confront our texts investments in some cultures but not others.

Para dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages packs training home

The problem is not the search itself, but the interpretation of the results. Allow me to develop this point through my own nerd self-affirmation as I discuss my methodology. Jerome ‘s Vulgate of c. This argument also applies to other terms such as: These parts may include part or all of the following:.

Dictionary net 3 4 4122 translate texts and words between various languages epic

The standing instructions shall become null and void if the Account does not have sufficient balance to cover the transaction Account Opening Form, article 2. This paper has pinpointed the common sources of difficulty between English and Arabic from a terminological perspective.

Asymmetry of the English and Arabic language and legal system result in many constraints facing the legal translators. Each type of these lexical items requires caution, investigation and knowledge on the part of the translator.

For example, with common words, the translator is entitled to distinguish the exact meaning of these words in the legal context. When translating archaic expressions, the translator should find an approximate corresponding expression in the TL or use paraphrasing.

Abstract words are very sensitive and they are subject to many legal interpretations in the legal context. Thus, the legal translator should translate them literally and should not try to disambiguate them even if this translation will result in a vague text.

Translation of doublets and triplets vary. In most of the examples presented, doublets, and triplets are rendered in the same number of words in the TT even though they result in redundancy.

Legal translation between English and Arabic is under researched. However, the growing need for it, due to immigration and asylum seeking, among other reasons, necessitates the importance of more research.

The asymmetry between English and Arabic poses many difficulties for legal translators, be they linguistic-based, culture-specific or system-based. The aim of this research is to discuss ways of translating lexical items between English and Arabic.

These areas involve culture-specific and system-based terms, archaic terms, specialised terms and doublets and triplets. With this aim in mind, the paper answers the following research questions: This paper is considered one of the fewest papers which were written about Arabic legal discourse back in He briefly discusses the features of Arabic legal discourse and its implications on legal translation.

In [ 7 ], he discusses the concept of how legal translation can correctly be tested in order to ensure precision and validity for application and implementation.

El-Farahaty [ 18 ] analysed the features of English and Arabic legal discourse, with a focus on the similarities and differences between them. She also investigated the techniques of translating certain difficult areas with special reference to an authentic parallel legal corpus.

This paper stems from the pertinent need for more research that addresses this aspect of legal translation, i. The two legal systems are strikingly different and each of them is embedded in the cultural background of each system.

Other countries, such as Egypt, follow both Islamic and Civil Law. Meaning and function of legal terms in each legal system are embedded in its legal culture. The difference between these two terms is given below: Some of the lexical difficulties whether language-specific or culture and system-specific that a translator of legal texts faces are discussed below: These Old and Middle English words comprise a large part of the legal lexis [ 32 , p.

They continue to be used in the English legal documents, in spite of the claims that they are replaced by simpler English terms. One of the finest statements about this issue is given below: Both archaic and Latin terms are elements of linguistic difference and they do not have a one – to – one correspondence in Arabic legal discourse.

These require more effort on the part of the translator. Being a cultural mediator, the Arabic legal translator may try to understand Latin terms conceptually rather than translating them literally.

The translator can also resort to glossaries to translate them into English, then explain, or expand them into Arabic [ 4 , 43 ]. Below I will give a few examples to clarify this point: From the above examples, translation of archaic phrases into Arabic varies considerably and they can vary more in a sentence level context as given in example 2 below: I enclose herewith a detailed report about the case: In the presence of the two witnesses hereinafter: In translating such a varied lexical list of template phrases from Arabic into English, the task of the translator becomes relatively easier due to the existence of the corresponding archaic terms, so the translator tends to follow the norms in the target language, i.

To clarify this idea, below are some examples from the Leeds Arabic legal corpus: Legal English includes technical, that is legal terms, as well as non – technical, that is non-legal everyday vocabulary.

The former category includes specialized legal terms which have fixed legal meanings and cannot be replaced by other words. These are some of the available translations of these terms into Arabic: The translation as it stands is not clear to the lay TL reader.

To compensate for this lack of comprehension, a paraphrase of this term will ensure that the meaning of it is spread across borders: The translator, then, needs to consult specialists, and analyse similar texts for reaching the best solution.

Aspect Definition Arabic translation 1 Legal Money that is paid to someone in exchange for something that has been lost or damaged or for some problem Example: A legal translator is advised not to take the initiative towards disambiguating abstract words, translating them literally as they are and leaving the interpretations to the court.

Some subsidiary solutions for the lack of one-to-one correspondence between legal terms and expressions are given below: Because there is no cultural equivalence, differences across legal cultures are more difficult to overcome than some of the issues discussed above.

Legrand [ 30 , p. Accordingly, lexical items of different cultures may have different functions and meanings. It is defined below: Words can also be interpreted differently in the TL. For instance, reference to God can be interpreted differently in other cultures.

To clarify this argument, the following example is cited on the effect of reference to God in the Spanish context: In the Arabic Culture, when a person is in trouble, a person may utter sentences like the one given above.

Some Arabic countries sometimes use other religious and culture-bound terms in Arabic legal texts such as referring to the time of the meeting by one of the five prayers that Muslims perform every day: In a Residential Lease Agreement , the ending time of the contract: Yet, if they are translated into English, they will be meaningless to the TT, neither do they affect the validity of the document if it is to be considered legally binding.

Possibilities of omitting these elements are stressed below: To clarify this argument, Edzard [ 16 , p. Examples of these include the concluding religious remarks i. These terms can be translated by borrowing, i.

These above terms are culturally loaded and need to be made more explicit. In this context, Hickey [ 29 , p. Accordingly, translation of the above mentioned Islamic terms demands paraphrase to correspond directly and accurately to the SL word and render its connotations to the TL reader.

This argument also applies to other terms such as: It is the same as Khul c nashizah: Doublets and triplets appear as part of legal Arabic as well as English. Some examples of Arabic—English doublets and triplets are given in the table below: Examples 6, 7, and 8.

Revenge of the Nerd: My methodology in pursuing these claims is to define a framework for “the literary” in contemporary American fiction by asking how books are contextualized and discussed not just among critics and scholars but also among a general readership online.

My research here incorporates book reviews from professional critics and everyday users of the websites Amazon and LibraryThing as well as automated recommendation networks operating on both of those sites.

By considering these digital traces of reading through the conceptual frame of the network, this article explores literary culture as a process of contextualization and elevation. The list, expanded into multiple dimensions, becomes the network.

These new dimensions are visible articulations of taste: By recasting these assertions as links and the names and titles as nodes, we can begin to see where books cluster and where they remain solitary.

This is a way of studying the social forces influencing books and readers at their intersection with literary production itself, and it draws on related approaches that James English and Mark McGurl have pioneered in their work on contemporary literary culture, and more distantly from Bruno Latour and Pierre Bourdieu [ Bourdieu ] [ Bourdieu ] [ Bourdieu ] [ English ] [ Latour ] [ McGurl ].

In short, I propose a turn in the digital humanities to incorporate not just algorithms but algorithmic culture into our critical framework and to recognize that humans and machines are learning to read in new ways.

Professional book reviewing and commercial consumption are two major intersections between the worlds of art and commerce, zones of exchange where popular canonicity and literary prestige are forged.

A reaction to this superheroic reading argues instead that the novel is a darker meditation on the violence inherent in narrative. Its gripping style conceals a refusal to translate along multiple axes: In applying the same technique to subcultures within the mainstream United States, he makes a subtler point about racial politics.

This renunciation is standard nerd practice, but the staging is usually quite different. I extend this frame to assert that the nerd is defined in relation not merely to “superstandard” language but highly specific dialects — the mastery of technoscientific skills, obscure popular genres and, increasingly, a socially impermissible obsession with almost any arcane subject.

For example wine nerds, XML nerds and comic book nerds are all likely to be among the readers of this article. Allow me to develop this point through my own nerd self-affirmation as I discuss my methodology.

The data I present here is drawn from literary culture “in the wild” — newspaper and magazine book reviews along with traces of digital consumption consumer reviews and automated recommendations from the websites Amazon and LibraryThing.

I will use two basic sets of data to build these empirical arguments. I have collected and analyzed a set of professional reviews, author profiles and other literary press from nationally recognized newspapers and magazines, as well as a complementary database of consumer book reviews from Amazon.

The script created a series of basic XML files with proper nouns tagged as nodes that I checked for errors before analyzing for co-occurrences using another set of Perl scripts that indexed those nodes by paragraph.

The co-occurrence links all three nodes in an equal, non-directional way. The method treats each paragraph as a “bag of words” with no attention paid to syntax or nuance. Replacing the review above with the following would generate the same diagram: By contrast I collected Amazon reviews, averaging just under words each.

Reviewers deploy references with purpose in this context, and a negative comparison carries as much cultural weight for the reader as a positive one, establishing in both cases a contextual framework for the subject of the review.

As the average lengths indicate, this economy is especially true for reviewers on Amazon, where the competition for literary attention is sharpened by multiple reviews of the same book and the status of the arbiter is always in question.

My methodology compares these two fields of literary discourse through the framework of proper noun networks. Tracing these webs of allusion, reference and context allows us to explore both sides of that great literary event horizon, the purchasing of a book.

While there are of course exceptions, people tend to read professional critics before they buy something, and they tend to write Amazon reviews afterwards. If book critics are “gatekeepers” to the literary marketplace, readers on Amazon report back from beyond the turnstiles, telling us why they went through.

Below we will see that as the balance of power between the two groups shifts, everyday readers are coming to define the “literary” in new ways. Amazon and LibraryThing present this data in recommendations such as the “Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought” mechanism on Amazon, providing an algorithmically driven feedback loop between accumulated acts of cultural distinction and specific kinds of literary desire.

For Amazon, the script would start at Oscar Wao and record the first ten [9] “Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought” links, and then move on to record the first ten links on each of those pages, continuing to three levels of depth.

The same process was repeated for LibraryThing based on the first ten “LibraryThing recommendations. In this data, the lines between nodes have directionality: Likewise, those starting out on the Chabon page will see a link back to Oscar Wao.

In this case, Amazon believes that readers of one book will enjoy the other, and the two texts end up mutually supporting each other in the larger system of recommendations.

The mutual link is based, Amazon claims, primarily on purchase data: The fact that this feedback loop is maintained, manipulated and studied by Amazon speaks both to our increasingly corporate cultural lives and to the importance of recognizing the contingency of data — all data.

Amazon sells books and manipulates its recommendations in order to sell them more efficiently, so it is possible that the mutual connection above is shaped by other factors, such as marketing campaigns, but we can rest assured that the connection is productive, or it would be replaced by another, more productive one.

Whatever role Amazon plays in our readerly futures, its role in the present is to influence a huge number of acts of literary distinction, and to study these acts is to explore a core sample of mainstream American literary culture.

Internet user average [ Quantcast ]. Just as I am “reading” Amazon here, Amazon is “reading” its users and perfecting algorithms to perform that reading ever more efficiently and more closely. As more of our literary cultural actions, from browsing to discussion, migrate to screens and digital media, reading takes place increasingly online.

But of course there are overlaps — this is a marketplace, and professional critics influence markets, just as markets influence critics — perhaps the most obvious being that many critics purchase books on Amazon.

The middle ground perspective that I adopt here balances out the impact of such individual overlaps by looking at reviews and recommendations in aggregate, exploring the remarkable public literary spaces created by thousands of readers online.

The Literary Marketplace In the few years since its publication, Oscar Wao has already appeared on hundreds of college and high school syllabi. The literary marketplace is the most active and hotly contested zone of cultural distinction, capturing both the influence of other, less commercial forms of critical elevation book reviews, best books of the decade lists, etc.

Figures 3—6 represent those texts recommended from the Amazon page of Oscar Wao at four roughly monthly intervals from December to March , with Figure 5 combining the data into a holistic view of persistent nodes.

One axis of distinction at work here is clearly the Pulitzer: Tinkers won the prize in , as did every other text just mentioned. I will speculate briefly that we see the holiday shopping season at work here and the release of major lists such as the New York Times “Best Books of the Year.

The gift-giving season also signals prime advertising, and publishers can allegedly “buy” recommendations on Amazon just as they can rent display cases and sales areas at brick and mortar stores [ Roychoudhuri ].

The feedback loop of advertising and consumer desire plays a major role here, in this case highlighting those texts with the prestigious gold stickers that embody prize capital.

Here are the two:. The cited passages are not quite opposites. But it also casts a jaundiced eye on the notion that everything—even bodies and voices— is for sale in the new commodity culture of the nineteenth-century.

I use the black squares of the German edition In speaking of the inner boulevards … we have made mention again and again of the arcades which open onto them. These arcades, a recent invention of industrial luxury, are glass-roofed, marble-paneled corridors extending through whole blocks of buildings, whose owners have joined together for such enterprises.

Lining both sides of these corridors, which get their light from above, are the most elegant shops, so that the arcade is a city, a world in miniature. During sudden rainshowers, the arcades are a place of refuge for the unprepared, to whom they offer a secure, if restricted promenade—one from which the merchants also benefit.

And the author now adds his brief commentary: Benjamin thus introduces his subject matter and points to the cross-references or links: Boredom began to be experienced in epidemic proportions during the s.

Lamartine is said to be the first to have given expression to the malady. It plays a role in a little story about the famous comic Deburau. A distinguished Paris neurologist was consulted one day by a patient whom he had not seen before.

The patient complained of the typical illness of the times—weariness with life, deep depressions, boredom. Just try to relax—find something to entertain you.

Go see Deburau some evening, and life will look different to you. A single page of Arcades thus gives us citations of popular song from an earlier period, lyric poem, documentary prose the travel book , authorial commentary, as well as literary narrative.

And finally—we are now at the bottom of the first A page—the list:. Au ci-devant jeune homme; ein confiseur: Aux armes de Werther. Au Ci-Devant Jeune Homme. Aux Armes de Werther.

The resonance of such lists—and they recur throughout the Arcades —is enormous. The Arcades are, of course, the emblem of the new bourgeois Paris of the Second Empire and the Second Republic, in which the glove of the pre-Revolutionary aristocrat has been replaced by the commercial glove shop.

Juxtaposed to Aux Armes de Werther , moreover, the glove becomes the dueling glove, thrown down in the moment of challenge. Romantic dueling, romantic love, Liebestod: The most sober documentation—for example, F.

In the English translation:. Haussmann cut immense gaps right through Paris, and carried out the most startling operations. It seemed as if Paris would never endure his surgical experiments. And yet, today, does it not exist merely as a consequence of his daring and courage?

His equipment was meager; the shovel, the pick, the wagon, the trowel, the wheelbarrow—the simple tools of every race … before the mechanical age. His achievement was truly admirable.

The Harvard edition provides an illustration of the tools in question. It all seems perfectly straightforward: Maybe Benjamin was, in fact, presenting the tools used to demolish the old Paris streets as forerunners of the readymades.

The Passagenwerk , in any case, looks ahead to the links later artists and poets could make between such curiously related items—links that the digital imagination has made entirely possible.

Jennings, Howard Eiland and Gary Smith, trans. Harvard UP, , ; p. Seuil, , my translation p. National Poetry Foundation, , xvi. The poems take up c. In the American Tree , This essay also appeared in Danish in En Tradition af opbrud: Avantghardenes tradition og politik , ed.

Poetry, Poetics, Pedagogy Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, , Langdon Hammer New York: I was rather disappointed. Book form, it seems, demands a readership in the native language.

Lehto is playing on T. Sun and Moon P, , p. A World View Bloomington: Indiana UP, , p. The poem is taken from Ernst Jandl, Laut und Luise , Harry Matthews and Alastair Brotchie London: Atlas P, , See my 21 st Century Modernism: Blackwell, , Marjorie Perloff and Craig Dworkin Chicago: U of Chicago P, Essays Los Angeles: